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우리나라는 매년 태풍, 홍수 등으로 인한 자연재해가 빈번하게 발생하고 있으며, 특히 최근에는 기후변화 등의 영향으로 인하여 그 피해규모가 점차 증가하고 있는 실정이다. 현행 구호행정의 한 분야인 구호물자의 관리와 배분은 현장에서 정보를 취득하고 사무실에서 다시 국가재난관리시스템(NDMS; National Disaster Management System)에 입력하는 체계로 현장에서의 업무와 사무실에서 업무가 중복되는 점이 있다. 그리고 현장자료를 정리하는데 시간이 많이 소요되고 있으며 수작업으로 구호물자를 관리하기 때문에 실시간 정보공유가 되지 않아서 구호물자의 지급지연 및 이중지급 등의 문제점을 지니고 있다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 문제점을 해결하기 위하여 U-IT를 기반으로 구호물자를 효율적으로 관리하는 정보화 시스템 구축에 대하여 고찰하였다. 스마트폰과 RFID(Radio Frequency Identification)를 활용한 재해 구호물자 관리가 가능한 모바일 기반의 재해구호 물자관리 자동화 시스템을 개발하고 구축효과를 살펴보았는데, 연간 950백만 원의 예산절감 등 기대효과가 있을 것으로 분석되었다. In Korea, natural disasters such as typhoons and floods occur frequently each year. Recently, however, due to climate change and other factors, the scale of damages from such natural disasters started to steadily increase. Our country existing relief goods management and distribution system, information is collected on the spot and then inputted into the National Disaster Management System (NDMS). Thus, the onsite work is duplicated in the office. Moreover, it takes much time to put the field information in order and the relief goods are managed manually, so the information cannot be shared in real time, which results in problems such as delays and duplicate payment of relief goods. To solve these problems, this research proposes the establishment of an information system for efficient management of relief goods based on U-IT. A mobile-based automated relief goods management system in which relief goods can be managed using a smartphone and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology was developed, and the effectiveness of the system was analyzed. The analysis showed that the developed system is expected to effectively reduce Korea`s budget for relief administration by 950 million won a year.
Korea is hit every year not only with typhoons, heavy rain and other natural disasters, but also with unpredictable various disasters, leading it to suffer a large number of disaster victims, and human and property damage. To quickly rescue such victims, the stockpiling of relief goods is one of key countermeasures. This paper thus aimed to set up the criteria for appropriate stockpiling of relief goods by examining the types of relief goods, their composition status, stockpiling and support status. And, it examined th relief goods stockpiling assessment criteria for Seoul City in a bid to set up the criteria for local governments. Towards that end, Seoul City’s natural disaster damage, caused in the period of 2001-2011, was examined. Alongside this examination, to estimate the dependent variable, no. of disaster victims, the regression analysis method, involving the independent variables, such as population density, disaster damage, and rainfall as correlation factors, was used; thus the goods relief stockpiling criteria was derived. This paper also found that, to assess the appropriate criteria for relief goods stockpiling, the staff's knowledge and experience, the utilization of accurate and ample data, and the future forecasting method are important. 우리나라는 매년 태풍과 집중호우 등 자연재해뿐만 아니라 예측 불가능한 각종 재난으로 수많은 이재민을 비롯한 인명과 재산 피해가 발생하고 있다. 이때 신속한 이재민 구호를 위해서는 재해구호물자의 비축이 중요한 대비책 중 하나라고 할 수 있다. 따라서 본 연구는 합리적인 재해구호물자의 비축기준 산정을 목적으로 재해구호물자의 종류, 구성현황, 비축 및 지원 실태를 살펴보았다. 그리고 서울특별시를 대상으로 지방자치단체가 확보하여야 할 재해구호물자 비축기준의 산정에 대해 고찰하였다. 이를 위해서 우선 서울특별시의 2001~2011년간 주요 자연재해 피해 상황을 살펴보았다. 이와 함께 종속변수인 이재민 수를 추정코자 독립변수인 인구밀도, 재산피해액, 강우량을 상관관계로 하는 회귀분석 방법을 활용하여 재해구호물자의 비축기준을 도출하였다. 본 논문에서는 재해구호물자 비축 기준의 합리적인 산정을 위해 담당자 지식과 경험, 정확하고 풍부한 데이터의 활용 및 미래예측 방식의 선택이 중요하다는 점이 밝혀졌다.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of HMD (head mounted display)-based virtual reality balance training on static balance in young adults, and whether appropriate balance training can help healthy adults to improve balance ability in daily living. Methods: The study subjects were 14 healthy adults. Subjects received 20 minutes of HMD-based virtual reality balance training 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Static balance was measured before, during, and after training and after one month. Static balance was measured in a total of 8 conditions, and the results were classified as visual (F1), somatosensory (F5-6), vestibular (F2-4), and central nervous system (F7-8). Results: The test results showed no significant difference in pre-training, post-training, and follow-up results under all conditions at Fourier index F1, F5-6, and F7-8 frequencies. For the F2-4 frequency, there was a significant difference before and after training under NC (neutral head position, eyes closed, firm surface) and PC (neutral head position, eyes closed, elastic surface) conditions. The NC condition returned a significant decrease of F2-4 frequency in post-training testing as compared to pre-training, and the PC condition showed a significant decrease of F2-4 frequency between the pre-training and mid-training tests, and between the pre-training and post-training tests. Conclusion: These results indicate that HMD-based balance training can improve balance ability, even in normal adults, and seems especially effective for vestibular function training.
Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data must be analyzed by an analyzer after data processing. Hence, the analyzed data of DTI might depend on the analyzer, making it a major limitation. This paper reviewed previous DTI studies reporting the repeatability and reproducibility of data from the corticospinal tract (CST), one of the most actively researched neural tracts on this topic. Materials and Methods: Relevant studies published between January 1990 and December 2018 were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE electronic databases using the following keywords: DTI, diffusion tensor tractography, reliability, repeatability, reproducibility, and CST. As a result, 15 studies were selected. Results: Measurements of the CSTs using region of interest methods on 2-dimensional DTI images generally showed excellent repeatability and reproducibility of more than 0.8 but high variability (0.29 to 1.00) between studies. In contrast, measurements of the CST using the 3-dimensional DTT method not only revealed excellent repeatability and reproducibility of more than 0.9 but also low variability (repeatability, 0.88 to 1.00; reproducibility, 0.82 to 0.99) between studies. Conclusion: Both 2-dimensional DTI and 3-dimensional DTT methods appeared to be reliable for measuring the CST but the 3-dimensional DTT method appeared to be more reliable.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows to isolate the corticospinal tract (CST) area from adjacent structures. Using DTI, we investigated the characteristics of the CST areas according to the pontine level in the normal human brain. We recruited 33 healthy subjects and DTIs were acquired using a sensitivity-encoding head coil on a 1.5-T Philips Gyroscan Intera. We measured the size and fractional anisotropy (FA) value of the CST area at the upper, middle, and lower pons. The size of the CST area in the lower pons was smaller than those of the mid-pons and upper pons, and the size of the CST area in the mid-pons was smallerthan that of the upper pons (p<0.05). FA values of the lower pons were larger than those of the mid-pons and upper pons, and the FA value of the mid-pons was also larger than that of the upper pons (p<0.05). In summary, we found a smaller size and higher FA value of the CST area from rostral to caudal direction in the pons. These results suggest a more compact neural structure of CST areas from rostral to caudal direction in the pons.
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous dual-task and horse-riding simulator (HRS) training regime on pulmonary function and flexibility. Methods: Sixteen subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: a dual-task (DT) (n=8) or a single-task (ST) (n=8) training group. Flexibility and pulmonary function were assessed before and after HRS training. Both groups underwent HRS training for 4 weeks, 3 times/week in 15-minute training sessions. The ST group underwent HRS training and the DT group underwent dual-task HRS training, which consisted of throwing and catching a ball and ring catching while HRS training. Results: Training significantly increased flexibility and FVC (forced vital capacity) and FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) in both groups (p<0.05), but FEV1/FVC and PEF (peak expiratory flow) were not significantly different after training in both groups (p>0.05). After the training, flexibility and FVC in the DT group were significantly greater than in the ST group (p<0.05), but FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were not significantly different (p>0.05). Conclusion: Simultaneous dual-task and HRS motor training improved flexibility, FVC, and FEV1, and our comparative analysis suggests that dual-task HRS training improved flexibility and FVC more than single-task training.
우리나라의 재해구호 행정은 `재해구호법`에 의거 자연재해로 인한 이재민 구호 위주로 되어있다. 따라서 저출산 고령화, 다문화, 기후변화 등 사회 경제 환경적 변화와 함께 신종 복합재난의 빈발할 가능성이 상존해 있으므로 모든 재해에 대처할 통합 재해구호의 필요성이 증대되고 있다. 이와 함께 고령자, 외국인수의 증가로 인해 재해약자를 배려할 법 제도적인 정비는 시급히 해결되어야 할 과제이다. 그리고 이재민에게 신속하고 안정되게 지원하여야 할 재난지원금과 구호기금 등 재해구호재원의 문제점도 개선되어야 한다. 아울러 재해구호세트 중심의 경직된 재해구호 물자 관리, 임시주거시설의 문제점 역시 해결되어야 할 과제이다. 마지막으로 구호교육 훈련의 부족, 구호전문가 양성 소홀과 연구개발(R&D)의 저조, 자원봉사 활동의 문제와 관련된 재해구호 운영상의 한계도 문제점으로 지적된다. 따라서 본 논문은 구호서비스 증진을 위한 법과 제도, 구호재원과 구호물자, 그리고 구호운영 실태 등을 조사 분석하고 문제점을 도출하여 구호업무 발전방안을 제시하였다. Major disaster relief in Korea is administered on the basis of the Disaster Relief Act which mainly aims for the relief of victims affected by natural disasters. There is, however, a growing need for the comprehensive relief that can cope with all kinds of disasters because the possibility of new and complex disasters always happens amid social, economic, and environmental changes, including low fertility, population aging, multiculturalism, and climate change. At the same time, due to the increasing numbers of elderly people and foreign workers, the establishment of laws and systems protecting the disaster minority has become an urgent task. Futhermore, several problems which relate to disaster relief funds and donations should be resolved. They must be delivered to the disaster victims promptly. And the poor management of the disaster relief supply which is focused on disaster relief kits only and the problem of the temporary housing facility should also be improved. Lastly, the short duration of disaster relief education and training, the neglect of cultivating disaster relief professionals and R&D, and the limitation of disaster relief management regarding to volunteering activities are pointed out. In this study, the development plan for relief activities were discussed by investigating and analyzing the problems involved in raws and legal system, relief resources and supplies, relief systems currently being operated.