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Far-infrared rays (FIR) are known to have various effects on atoms and molecular structures within cells owing to their radiation and vibration frequencies. The present study examined the effects of FIR on gene expression related to glucose transport through microarray analysis in rat skeletal muscle cells, as well as on mitochondrial biogenesis, at high and low glucose conditions. FIR were emitted from a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF). L6 cells were treated with 30% BMCF for 24 h in medium containing 25 or 5.5 mM glucose, and changes in the expression of glucose transporter genes were determined. The expression of GLUT3 (Slc2a3) increased 2.0-fold (p < 0.05) under 5.5 mM glucose and 30% BMCF. In addition, mitochondrial oxygen consumption and membrane potential (ΔΨm) increased 1.5- and 3.4-fold (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001), respectively, but no significant change in expression of Pgc-1a, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, was observed in 24 h. To analyze the relationship between GLUT3 expression and mitochondrial biogenesis under FIR, GLUT3 was down-modulated by siRNA for 72 h. As a result, the ΔΨm of the GLUT3 siRNA-treated cells increased 3.0-fold (p < 0.001), whereas that of the control group increased 4.6- fold (p < 0.001). Moreover, Pgc-1a expression increased upon 30% BMCF treatment for 72 h; an effect that was more pronounced in the presence of GLUT3. These results suggest that FIR may hold therapeutic potential for improving glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in metabolic diseases associated with insufficient glucose supply, such as type 2 diabetes
Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is known to be a representative skin disorder, it also affects the systemic immune response. In a recent study, myoblasts were shown to be involved in the immune regulation, but the roles of muscle cells in AD are poorly understood. We aimed to identify the relationship between mitochondria and atopy by genome-wide analysis of skeletal muscles in mice. We induced AD-like symptoms using house dust mite (HDM) extract in NC/Nga mice. The transcriptional profiles of the untreated group and HDM-induced AD-like group were analyzed and compared using microarray, differentially expressed gene and functional pathway analyses, and protein interaction network construction. Our microarray analysis demonstrated that immune response-, calcium handling-, and mitochondrial metabolism-related genes were differentially expressed. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology pathway analyses, immune response pathways involved in cytokine interaction, nuclear factor-kappa B, and T-cell receptor signaling, calcium handling pathways, and mitochondria metabolism pathways involved in the citrate cycle were significantly upregulated. In protein interaction network analysis, chemokine family-, muscle contraction process-, and immune response-related genes were identified as hub genes with many interactions. In addition, mitochondrial pathways involved in calcium signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidation-reduction process, and calcium-mediated signaling were significantly stimulated in KEGG and Gene Ontology analyses. Our results provide a comprehensive understanding of the genome-wide transcriptional changes of HDM-induced AD-like symptoms and the indicated genes that could be used as AD clinical biomarkers.
Despite increased evidence of bio-activity following far-infrared (FIR) radiation, susceptibility of cell signaling to FIR radiation-induced homeostasis is poorly understood. To observe the effects of FIR radiation, FIR-radiated materials-coated fabric was put on experimental rats or applied to L6 cells, and microarray analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and wound healing assays were performed. Microarray analysis revealed that messenger RNA expressions of rat muscle were stimulated by FIR radiation in a dose-dependent manner in amount of 10% and 30% materials-coated. In 30% group, 1,473 differentially expressed genes were identified (fold change [FC] > 1.5), and 218 genes were significantly regulated (FC > 1.5 and p < 0.05). Microarray analysis showed that extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and cell migration-related pathways were significantly stimulated in rat muscle. ECM and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-mediated cell migration-related genes were increased. And, results showed that the relative gene expression of actin beta was increased. FIR radiation also stimulated actin subunit and actin-related genes. We observed that wound healing was certainly promoted by FIR radiation over 48 h in L6 cells. Therefore, we suggest that FIR radiation can penetrate the body and stimulate PDGF-mediated cell migration through ECMintegrin signaling in rats.
Pruritus (itching) is classically defined as an unpleasant cutaneous sensation that leads to scratching behavior. Although the scientific criteria of classification for pruritic diseases are not clear, it can be divided as acute or chronic by duration of symptoms. In this study, we investigated whether skin injury caused by chemical (contact hypersensitivity, CHS) or physical (skin-scratching stimulation, SSS) stimuli causes initial pruritus and analyzed gene expression profiles systemically to determine how changes in skin gene expression in the affected area are related to itching. In both CHS and SSS, we ranked the Gene Ontology Biological Process terms that are generally associated with changes. The factors associated with upregulation were keratinization, inflammatory response and neutrophil chemotaxis. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway shows the difference of immune system, cell growth and death, signaling molecules and interactions, and signal transduction pathways. Il1a , Il1b and Il22 were upregulated in the CHS, and Tnf , Tnfrsf1b, Il1b, Il1r1 and Il6 were upregulated in the SSS. Trpc1 channel genes were observed in representative itching-related candidate genes. By comparing and analyzing RNA-sequencing data obtained from the skin tissue of each animal model in these characteristic stages, it is possible to find useful diagnostic markers for the treatment of itching, to diagnose itching causes and to apply customized treatment.
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide and several molecular signatures have been developed to predict survival in lung cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that proliferation and migration to promote tumor growth are associated with dysregulated ion channel expression. In this study, by analyzing high-throughput gene expression data, we identify the differentially expressed K+ channel genes in lung cancer. In total, we prioritize ten dysregulated K+ channel genes (5 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated genes, which were designated as K-10) in lung tumor tissue compared with normal tissue. A risk scoring system combined with the K-10 signature accurately predicts clinical outcome in lung cancer, which is independent of standard clinical and pathological prognostic factors including patient age, lymph node involvement, tumor size, and tumor grade. We further indicate that the K-10 potentially predicts clinical outcome in breast and colon cancers. Molecular signature discovered through K+ gene expression profiling may serve as a novel biomarker to assess the risk in lung cancer.