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All emergency centers in Korea use the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) as their initial triage tool. However, KTAS has been used without verification of its reliability. In this study, we assess the interrater agreement of KTAS by two independent nurses in real- time and analyse the factors which have an effect on the disagreement of KTAS levels. Methods: This study was a prospective observational study conducted with patients who visited an emergency department (ED). Two teams, each composed of two nurses, triaged patients and recorded KTAS level and the main complaint from the list of 167 KTAS complaints, as well as modifiers. Interrater reliability between the two nurses in each team was assessed by weighted-kappa. Pearson's χ2 test was conducted to determine if there were differences between each nurse's KTAS levels, depending on whether they chose the same complaints and the same modifiers or not. Results: The two teams triaged a total of 1,998 patients who visited the ED. Weighted-kappa value was 0.772 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.750–0.794). Patients triaged by different chosen complaints showed (38.0%) higher inconsistency rate in KTAS levels than those triaged by the same complaint (10.9%, P < 0.001). When nurses chose the same complaint and different modifiers, the ratio of different levels (50.5%) was higher than that of the same complaint and same modifier (8.1%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that KTAS is a reliable tool. Selected complaints and modifiers are confirmed as important factors for reliability; therefore, selecting them properly should be emphasized during KTAS training courses.
The purpose of this study is to critically examine previous research on feedback-in-writing in writing education and to reexamine the direction of research on feedback-in-writing. In this study, we looked at the research trends with regard to feedback-in-writing from a quantitative rather than a qualitative perspective. To do this, we extracted 111 research papers directly related to feedbackin-writing of Korean education in RISS and examined quantitative trends according to the time flow. Based on the results, we analyzed statistically relevant research objectives, research subjects, and research methods. In particular, We looked at the research trends related to feedbackin-writing in college education, and estimated the reasons why research into feedback has declined in recent years. It is clear that changes in writing education in universities are related to changes in the university and social environment with regard to liberal arts education. However, this presupposes that research cannot explain everything that has been shrinking. The existing research has always been pointed out that it has repeatedly tried several similar research methods. A variety of research methodological approaches are needed to revitalize the adverse feedback study, which sharply declined in 2017. One solution to mediate the problem is that it is necessary to convert the perspective of research on feedback-in-writing from the perspective of the subject providing comments to the perspective of the student’s response to provided comments. The student’s response to provided comments needs to be converted from the perspective of “improvement” that has been seen in previous studies to the perspective of the student’s “aspect”. When the teacher is providing instruction about the individual focus or the overall focus to the students, a study of the students’ responses will tell us what kind of commenting can be effective.
휘발성유기화합물(VOCs)은 냄새와 독성을 가지며, 화학산업, 인쇄시설, 폐수처리 공정과 같은 다양한 산업공정에서 배출된다. VOCs은 태양광에 의해 질소 산화물과 반응하여 오존 및 광화학 산화제를 형성하며 오존 형성 및 광화학 스모그 형성에 기여하며, 매우 낮은 농도에서도 인체 건강에 해롭기 때문에 제거가 꼭 필요한 물질이다. 활성탄을 이용한 흡착법은 오염된 공기 중의 VOCs를 제거하는데 효과적인 기술이다. 활성탄은 수분이 없는 건조한 상태에서 VOCs 제거에 대한 성능은 매우 우수하지만, 고습도 조건에서의 제거효율이 급격하게 저하되는 단점이 있다. 따라서 본 연구는 이온교환수지의 활성화 시간을 조절하여 제조한 활성탄을 통해 수분에 대한 영향을 확인하였다. 수지계 활성탄의 BET 표면적, 원소 함량, 표면작용기, 기공 분포도 등의 차이에 따른 수분 및 피흡착질 등온선, 파과 실험 결과 차이를 통해 수분에 대한 안정성이 향상됨을 확인하였다.
We have investigated the light extraction efficiency of large-area OLED lighting panels with a microlens array (MLA) or external scattering layer (ESL) by ray tracing simulation. The application of MLA and ESL to transparent OLEDs (TOLEDs) with an auxiliary metal electrode is also studied. It is found that MLA shows higher light extraction efficiency, compared with ESL. However, we have demonstrated that ESL is more suitable for TOLEDs having dual-sided equal light emission. Namely, equal light emission from the front and rear surfaces of TOLED can be achieved by increasing the scattering particle density of ESL. To compensate for a loss in light emission induced by auxiliary metal electrode, we come out with an OLED structure partially covered with MLA at the outer surface of glass substrate, which is aligned with metal electrode. With this scheme, it is observed that the light extraction efficiency can be boosted more than 20% from opaque OLED and 50% from transparent OLED.
With an attempt to enhance the visibility of laser beam, we have investigated a black matrix with scattering particles by ray tracing simulations. As the scattering particle density is increased, the detected power by the receiver is increased, thereby enhancing the visibility. In reality, the visibility is reduced with increasing incident angle (away from the normal incidence) of laser beam, a phenomenon also observed by ray tracing simulations. It is due to the fact that the mean path is increased within a highly absorptive BM layer or a smaller number of rays hit the BM area when the incident angle is high. Embedding a number of scattering particles into BM may bring in crosstalk among pixels. However, it is negligible because scattered rays inside highly absorptive BM are re-scattered due to the high scattering particle density, decreasing the power of scattered rays into the active areas.
Purpose: Circumferential pulmonary (PV) vein isolation (CPVI) is the most important treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation (AF). While understanding left atrial wall thickness around PVs (PVWT) prior to catheter ablation is important, its clinical implicationsare not known. This study aimed to evaluate PVWT characteristics according to underlying disease and to identify associationsbetween PVWT and reconnections of PV potentials (PVPs) in redo ablation. Materials and Methods: In 28 patients who underwent redo-AF ablation, PVWT and reconnected PVPs were evaluated at 12 sites (1–12 o’clock) around each PV. Clinical characteristics including stroke and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were analyzed according to the PVWT. Results: The PVWT was thicker in males than females (p<0.001) and in those with diabetes (p=0.045) or heart failure (p=0.002) than in those without. Patients with strokes or high CHA2DS2-VASc scores (≥3) had significantly thinner PVWTs than those withoutstrokes or low CHA2DS2-VASc scores (p<0.001). In redo-ablation, reconnected PVPs were detected in 60 (53.6%) of 112 PVs, and the PVs were thicker (p<0.001) and had more reconnected PVs (p=0.009) than right PVs. A PVWT of >0.6 mm predicted PV reconnections with a sensitivity of 76.7% and specificity of 52.2% with an area under the curve of 0.695. Conclusion: Thick PVWs were associated with diabetes and heart failure, and also showed significant inverse correlations with stroke and the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Thick PVWs were associated with reconnected PVPs after the CPVI, which were related to AF recurrence.
This study examined the antibacterial activities of two different cinnamon essential oil emulsions against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium on basil leaves. Cinnamon oil (0.25%) treatments containing CPC (0.05%) exhibited greater effects on the pathogenic bacteria than cinnamon oil treatment without this emulsifier (p\0.05). Treatment with cinnamon bark and leaf oil emulsions (CBE and CLE, respectively) reduced the populations of E. coli O157:H7 by 4.10 and 5.10 log CFU/g, and S. Typhimurium by 2.71 and 2.82 log CFU/g, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs showed morphological changes in the two pathogenic bacteria following emulsion treatment. In addition, there was no difference in the color or ascorbic acid content of the basil leaves by the emulsion treatment. These results suggest that CBE or CLE treatment can be an effective way to ensure the microbial safety of minimally processed vegetables and a good alternative to chlorination treatment in the fresh produce industry.