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Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyze Korea’s trade relations centered on the Pacific Alliance (PA), a major economic integration in Latin America, and identify its problems and suggest measures that can be taken by the government and corporations to reinforce economic cooperation. Design/methodology/approach - To improve the level of contribution of the study, an empirical analysis is necessary. However, due to limited data access, the study will approach the topic of trade relations between Korea and the PA with various statistics and literature. Findings - First, there is an urgent need for changes in import-export goods between Korea and the PA, as trade is focused on specific items. Second, although foreign direct investment from Korea to the PA is centered in manufacturing and mining industries, there should be different investment strategies by countries and industries. Third, it is necessary to reinforce commercial cooperation. Korea currently has Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Peru, and Columbia, but not with Mexico, the largest trading partner among the PA. Therefore, Korea must take active measures to sign an FTA with Mexico, which has been put on hold. Research implications or Originality - Latin America has the most thriving market when it comes to Free Trade Agreements worldwide. With the official establishment of the Pacific Alliance (PA) in 2012, the economic integration of Latin America faced entirely new circumstances. Reinforcing economic cooperation with the PA is extremely important for Korea in terms of entering and dominating the Latin American market. However, there is still a lack of research on the Pacific Alliance, and corporations that aim to enter the Latin American market face difficulties due to lack of information. By investigating the Pacific Alliance and its prospects and analyzing the trade relations with Korea, this study will provide strategic measures for corporations that wish to enter the Latin American market.
We investigated the effects of photosynthetic active radiation generated by blue (465 nm peak wavelength) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red (625 nm peak wavelength) LEDs, or an electroluminescent sheet (EL) (two peak wavelengths: 454 and 565 nm), and dark conditions on the quality preservation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings during low-light irradiation (LLI) storage. The photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) at the plant canopy level was automatically controlled using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to maintain the CO2 exchange rate of the seedlings at zero. Nine seedlings were stored for 21 d in a storage case at 10 ± 0.5°C and at greater than 95% RH. The total dry weight of the tomato seedlings after storage under any LLI was significantly greater compared to that before storage and during dark storage. The PPFD required for maintaining the CO2 exchange rate of the seedlings at zero under all LLI treatments over a 21 d storage period gradually decreased dueto the low-light adaptation of the plant. The mean PPFDs to maintain a light compensation point under the blue LED-, red LED-, and EL-LLI for the last week of storage were 5.15, 5.03, and 5.20 μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively. The spectral distribution of the EL light may help preserve seedling quality better than that of the blue or red LED lights and the dark condition, providing a vigorous seedlings with upright morphology and significantly lower specific leaf area (cm2·g-1 DW), which reflects a thick leaf. For green plant storage, an EL or other kind of mixed light is able to control PPFD automatically, which may help maintain seedling quality for more than 3 weeks longer than withblue or red monochromatic light.
Background: Anaphylaxis is a systematic allergic reaction, which may be fatal. However, despite its seriousness, its low level of incidence has prevented in depth studies. Thus, we analyzed the causes of anaphylactic shock in patients admitted in a tertiary hospital, observed its clinical symptoms, and formed a basis for adequate emergency treatment, as well preventive methods. Methods: The patients who visited Ajou university hospitals from June 1994 to May 2000(7 years) and who met the 1974 JAMA definition were selected for this retrospective study. The analysis of causative agents was made on the basis of clinical symptoms and the patients' chief complaints at the time of admission. Patients diagnosed with anaphylactic shock included those showing at least two types of IgE-mediated symptoms; and those with a simple rash or breathing difficulties were excluded from the study. Results: Of 36 patients, 22 were male and 14 female, Those below the age of 20 comprised 16.7% of the patients(6 patients), between 20 and 29 comprised 16.7%(6 patients), 30 and 39 comprised 25%(9 patients), 40 and 49 comprised 27.8%(10 patients), over 50 comprised 14%(5 patients). The overall percentage show 70% of the patients in active adult age group. Rash was the most common clinical symptoms(89%, 32 patients) and hypotension the second(75%, 27 patients), followed by respiratory distress, fainting, and arrhythmia. Causative agents were insect bites, including bee stings(15 patients), medication(12 patients), food(8 patients), and unknown(1 patients). Nine(9) of the 36 case, were diagnosed as having an atopic origin. Conclusion: Bee sting was the single most common cause in the insect criteria while penicillin & NSAIDs accounted for most of medication-induced cases. Food showed a varied distribution. An atopic origin was not a basis for anaphylactic shock, but did show a two-fold increase of prevalence. This study is the first of its kind in addressing anaphylactic shock, a potentially severe illness, over a period of 7 years.
Irradiation can produce crosslinking, mam chain scission, production, and /or removal of unsaturation, etc. Crosslinking leads to a network, an effect that has extensive technological applications, while scission breaks up the molecules and may eventually degrade them. When an irradiation technique is used in polymer PTC(positive temperature coefficient) materials, it can improve the PTC intensity and stabilize PTC functions significantly. In this study, we described the effects of y -rays and electron beam(EB) on the PTC performance of polyethylene oxide (PEO) /carbon black blends with low temperature PTC. PEO with molecular weight of 8,000,000 was selected as the polymer matrix in this work. Carbon black with particle size 86 nm was used. The CB and polymer were mixed in a Brabender Plastograph at 120°C for 15 min. The composition thus produced was sandwiched between a pair of copper foils(0.04 mm thick), which served as electrodes. PEO/CB blends were irradiated in nitrogen with <sup>60</sup>Co r -rays and electron beam accelerator. The absorbed dose ranged from 1-150kGy. The influences of irradiation on PTC performance of the blends were analyzed.
…Latin America is one of the fastest-growing emerging IT markets, recording about 20 billion dollars in market size in 2005 and growing by an average of 7.6% a year. It is expected that the market size of Latin America’s IT market in 2007 will reach about 30 billion dollars. The potential of the IT market in Latin America is very high, though it varies from country to country. With regard to investment in IT infrastructure, the demands for contents through the built infrastructure will be drastically increased. Accordingly, Latin America is a market that will give Korea a new chance to sustain development in the IT industry and solve structural problems like limited export markets and items of Korean IT companies.