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The principal difference from the classical in the problem of likelihood probability according to sampling results under the given state of nature on the Bayesian decision making process is whether we should cpnsider or not the prior probability. Classical statistician state that only the objective probability or relative frequency is reasonable and is difficult to understand the Bayesian approach which apply the posterior probability with the subjective or individual one. As above mentioned, however, the thought by Bayesian approach is that it is difficult to solve th decision making problem related to an economic condition if only the very objective probability should be used. Considering and comparing the theoretical difference between classical statistical approach and Bayesian decision making theory, two main points may be designated. The first is the difference of hypothesis test method. In classical statistical approach we decide the truth or falsehood of the hypothesis under the relaibility of α=0.05, 0.01 after sampling for the alternative of acceptance and rejection when hypothesized. Since the analyzer's transcendental knowledge is suggested in the hypothesis it is reasonable to think that we can respectively arrange subjective probability value to as many hypothesis as we can put forwards and practically choose one of them by sampling, while the classical approach is criticized in view of little adaptability because intuitive and subjective determination are over-emphasized. Secondly it is considered that in Bayesian decision making theory the degree of risk charged by decision maker is calculated as cost and the cost charged in sampling information a and the degree of risk can be compared. Accordingly, we can reck on the posterior probability obtained from the first sampling inspection as the prior probability and act the sequential decision making in which the preposterior analysis and posterior analysis may be practised again, in case that we want to have better information than sampling information obtained from the once inspection results in terms of Bayesian decision making theory.
어느 시대·장소를 불문하고, 인간에게는 하나의 공유하는 부분이 있다. 그것은 국가, 사회, 조직 등의 공동체 생활을 한다는 사실이다. 그러한 공동체가 유지·발전하기 위해선 구성원이 각자의 의무를 충실히 이행하면서 정해진 규칙을 잘 지켜야 한다. 승가 역시 하나의 공동체로서 예외는 아니다. 승가는 붓다의 가르침을 신봉하여 실천한다는 점에서 재가자의 존경과 보시에 의존하여 존속·발전하여야 하기 때문에 일반사회의 시선을 인식하지 않으면 안 된다. 그러므로, 승가는 존경의 대상이 되기 위해서는 승가에 들어올 때부터 여법한 자격을 갖추어야 하는 것은 말할 것도 없다. 여법한 자격을 갖추지 못하면 승가에 들어갈 수 없다. 이것을 차법(遮法)이라고 한다. 다시말해, 차법이란 승가의 구성원이 될 수 없는 일정한 결격사유를 말한다. 차법은 붓다의 가르침인 열려진 평등의 의미에서는 어긋난 것으로 볼 수 있으나, 승가의 조직화로 인해 사회와의 상호관련 속에서 그 조직의 존속, 유지를 위하여 일정한 제한이 필요하게 된 것이다. 이에 본 논문에서는 먼저 공동체로서의 승가의 의미에 대해 알아보고, 승가의 구성원 중 비구의 구족계 결격사유의 제정이유를 제 율장을 통해 알아보았다. 특히, 율 제정당시의 시대상황에 비해 오늘날 인권의 관심과 존중은 시민혁명과 권리장전 등을 통해 더욱 중요시되었다. 이에 오늘날 대한불교 조계종의 차법이라 할 수 있는 연령, 학벌, 장애인등 인권과 관련된 제한사유에 대하여 그 당시의 제정이유에 대한 다각적인 시각을 통하여 현대사회에서의 적용에 대한 문제점에 대해서 재고해 보고자 하였다. 결론적으로 승가의 차법은 일반사회와의 충돌을 피하기 위한 목적으로 제정된 것임을 알 수 가 있었다. 이런 의미에서 차법이 결코 고정불변의 규칙이 아니라 사회와의 관련 속에서 차법이 생겨났음을 알 수 가 있다. 즉 현대에는 현대에 맞는 새로운 규칙이 요구되는 것이다. 차법은 승단운영이라는 조직적인 운영측면에서 제정된 것에 불과하며, 깨달음의 길은 모든 인간에게 열려있다. 승단 운영은 사회 상황에 따라 변하지만, 깨달음의 길이라고 하는 불교의 진면목은 결코 변하지 않는다. 그러므로, 승가의 차법은 오늘날 한국사회와의 적용에 대한 재고를 통해 한국사회와 조화로운 방향으로 발전하였음하는 바람이다. Regardless of any age and place, there is one thing that is shared among people. That is the fact that they live in a community such as a country, society, or organization. In order for such a community to be maintained and advanced, it is necessary for the members to observe the prescribed rules, while being faithful to undertaking each other’s duty. Samgha is not an exception as a community. Given that Samgha believes and practices the teachings of Buddha, it should continue and advance depending on respect and the Buddhist alms of Buddhist monks and followers; thus, it cannot help recognize the views of general society. As a result, it is obvious for Samgha to be prepared with legal qualifications, even from entering Samgha, in order to become an object of respect. If legal qualifications are not prepared, entering Samgha is not allowed. This is called antarayika dhamma. In other words, antarayika dhamma means certain grounds for disqualification by which one cannot be a member of Samgha. In a sense of open equality, which is the teaching of Buddha, antarayika dhamma may be seen as a deviation from this meaning; however, owing to the organization of Samgha, in correlation with a society, certain limitations were needed for the existence and maintenance of the organization. therefore, first, the aim of this paper is to discover the meaning of Samgha as a community, and to review the reasons for registering grounds for disqualification from among the members of Samhga for Gujokgye of a bigu (Buddhist priest) through all the Vinaya Piṭaka, and to consider problems in its application to today’s society through multilateral perspectives on the reason for legislation of the occasions regarding grounds for restrictions about age, educational background, and human rights of the disabled, which may be the antarayika dhamma of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. In conclusion, antarayika dhamma of Samgha was discovered to be legislated for the purpose of avoiding conflicts with general society. In this regard, it is found that antarayika dhamma is never an unchanging rule, but it was generated in relation to a society. That is, a new rule suited to today’s society is required in today’s society. In other words, antarayika dhamma is merely something legislated from the aspect of organizational operation, namely the operation of a monastic order. The path of enlightenment is open to all people. The operation of enlightenment may change in accordance with the social situation; however, the real worth of Buddhism, which is the path of enlightenment, never changes. As a result, it is hoped that the antarayika dhamma of Samgha will advance in a harmonious direction with Korean society through consideration of the application of the rules of today’s Korean society.
The influences of early ambulation on the post operative course of surgical patients were studied in this paper. The following results were obtained; 1. The study on the relationship between the early ambulation and the medication of analgesics in the poerative course revealed that more analgesics were used in the Control group. No analgesics were administered in 30% of the Examined group and in 21% of the Control group. 2. No urinary catheterization was performed in the post operative period in 53% among the Control group, were as 67% among the Examined group. 3. No remarkable differences were observed in the time of the appearance of 1st flatus but major operations the appearance of 1st flatus was 8.3 hours earlier than the Control group. 4. The oral intake was started 7. 2 hours earlier in the Examined group than the Control group. 5. The post-operative period necessary for the first ambulation in the Examined group was 1.8 days shorter than the Control group. 6. The total duration of hospitalization in the Examined group was half day shorter than the Control group. 7. The post operative complication in the Examined group was one case of wound eviceration, whereas 4 complicated cases were observed in the Control group, i, e, one case of decubitus ulcer with abdominal distension, one case of asphyxia. one case of abdominal distension and one case of wound eviceration accompanied by decubitus ulcer.
The purpose of the study was to classify individual particle emitted from the point source of air pollution emissions in Kyongsangnam-do by SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy / energy dispersive X-ray analyzer). The SEM/EDX provided various physical parameters including particle`s optical diameter and chemical information. The total of 344 individual particle sample were collected at 5 point source including coal-fired power plant, incinerator, and oil boiler. Thus number fraction of each particle can be estimated based on chemical composition. To obtain number fraction of each particle class, an agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis was initially applied to create particle classes for each sample. The study provides opportunities to identify particles source quantitatively and to develope various receptor models.
Polymer membrane for separating carbon dioxide has been developed and attracted attention because of global warming. Among various polymer membranes materials, Polyimide (PI) has excellent thermal and mechanical properties, good chemical stability and high gas transport property. In this work, We improved permeability of membranes can be achieved by controlling solubility. we synthesized PI-PEG copolymer to improve solubility. Diamines containing durene group were used to obtain polyimide having the high FFV. Finally, chemical structure were investigated and PI-PEG copolymer membrane and then we prepared hollow fiber PI-PEG membrane through controlled various parameter. also we measured gas transport property of PI-PEG membrane.
<목적> 장크롬친화성 세포에서 주로 분비되는 세로토닌은 장의 연동운동, 통증 지각 및 분비에 중요한 역할을 하며, 과민성 장증후군의 병인에도 관여하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 과민성 장증후군의 병태생리학적 기전의 하나로 알려진 내장과민성(visceral hypersensitivity)과 직장의 장크롬친화성 세포와의 연관성에 대해 알아보고자 하였다. <대상 및 방법> 로마기준 II로 진단한 과민성 장증후군 환자 25명 (평균나이 43.1세, 남