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Background and Purpose Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a commonly reported reasonfor visiting hospital neurology departments, but its prevalence, clinical characteristics, andmanagement have not been well documented in Korea. The objective of this study was to characterize the 1-year prevalence, clinical characteristics, medical consultations, and treatment forCDH in Korea. Methods The Korean Headache Survey (KHS) is a nationwide descriptive survey of 1507Korean adults aged between 19 and 69 years. The KHS investigated headache characteristics,sociodemographics, and headache-related disability using a structured interview. We used theKHS data for this study. Results The 1-year prevalence of CDH was 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.1–2.5%), and25.7% of the subjects with CDH met the criteria for medication overuse. Two-thirds (66.7%) ofCDH subjects were classified as having chronic migraine, and approximately half of the CDHsubjects (48.1%) reported that their headaches either substantially or severely affected theirquality of life. Less than half (40.7%) of the subjects with CDH reported having consulted adoctor for their headaches and 40.7% had not received treatment for their headaches during theprevious year. Conclusions The prevalence of CDH was 1.8% and medication overuse was associated withone-quarter of CDH cases in Korea. Many subjects with CDH do not seek medical consultation anddo not receive appropriate treatment for their headaches.
In this paper, suggesting a new linearly -graded depletion edge approximation, the current-voltage characteristics of an n-type short-channel GaAs MESFET device has been analyzed by solving the two dimensional Poisson's equation in the depletion region. In this model, the expressions for the threshold voltage, the source and the drain ohmic resistance, and the drain current were derived. As a result, typical Early effect of a short channel device was shown and the ohmic voltage drop by source and drain contact resistances could be explained. Furthermore our model could analyze both the short-channel device and the long-channel device in a unified manner. 본 논문에서는 단채널 n형 GaAs MESFET 소자의 공핍층의 두께가 선형적으로 변한다는 근사를 적용하여 공핍층내의 2차원 프와송 방정식을 풀어 단채널 GaAs MESFET의 전류-전압 특성을 해석적으로 도출하는 모델을 제안하였다. 이 모델로부터 문턱 전압, 소오스와 드레인의 저항 및 드레인 전류식을 도출하였다 계산 결과로부터 전류-전압 특성 곡선에서 단채널 소자의 특성인 Early 효과를 설명할 수 있었고 소오스 접촉 저항과 드레인 접촉 저항에 의한 전압 강하도 설명할 수 있었다. 더욱이 본 모델은 소자 해석에 있어서 단채널 소자에만 국한되지 않고 장채널 소자의 특성을 해석하는 데에도 적용할 수 있었다.
Purpose: S100B protein is widely used as a measure of glial activity or damage in several brain conditions. Central nervous system (CNS) infections can cause neurological sequelae because of parenchyma invasion. It is difficult to predict further neuronal damage in the CNS infection. The present study is aimed to evaluate the role of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) S100B protein as an indicator of neuronal damage in CNS infection. Materials and Methods: We measured the concentration of CSF S100B protein in 62 patients with a CNS infection using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The patients with CNS infections were classified as having no neuronal damage (CNS-N) or as having neuronal damage (CNS+N) according to the presence of neurological change or structural lesions on brain MRI. Results: The CSF S100B protein level of the CNS+N group (n=22, 0.235 μg/L, 0.10-2.18) was significantly higher than that of the CNS-N group (n=40, 0.087 μg/L, 0.06-0.12) and control group (n=40, 0.109 μg/L, 0.07-0.14, p<0.01). Using an arbitrary cut off value, S100B-positive CSF was detected in 2.5% of the CNS-N group and in 50% of the CNS+N group (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that increased S100B protein levels in the CSF may be associated with the neuronal damage following CNS infections.
Purpose : To determine optimal scan time for early phase of two-phase spiral CT and to evaluate is usefulness in the detection and assessment of extension of urinary bladder lesions.Materials and Methods : In four normal adults, we performed dynamic scanning and obtained time-density curves for internal and external iliac arteries and veins, and the wall of the urinary bladder. Sixty patients with 68 lesions of the urinary bladder or prostate underwent precontrast and two-phase spiral CT scanning. After injection of 100ml of noninonic contrast material, images for the early and delayed phases were obtained at 60 seconds 5 minutes, respectively. We measured CT H.U. of the wall, the lesion, and lumen of urinary bladder as seen on axial scanning, in each image in which the lesioin was best shown. For the detection of bladder lesions and assessment of their extension, precontrast, early-, and delayed phase images were compared.Results : Dynamic study of normal adults showed maximum enhancement of bladder wall between 60 and 100 seconds. The differene of CT H.U. between bladder wall and the lesion was greatest in the early phase. The best detection rate(98.5%) was seen during this phase, and for the detection of bladder lesion, this same phase was superior or equal (66/68, 97.1%) to the delayed phase. The precontrast image was also superior or equal (31/68, 45.6%) to that of the delayed phase. For the assessment of extension of bladder lesion, the early phase was superior (36/68. 52.9) to the delayed phase, and precontrast image was superior (1/68, 1.5%) to that of the delayed phase. For determining the stage of bladder cancer, the early phase was most accurate if the stages was below $B_2$ or D, while for stage C, the delayed phase was most accurate.Conclusion : In two-phase spiral CT scanning, we consider the optimal time for the early phase to be between 60 and 100 seconds after injection of contrast material. For the detection and assessment of extension of urinary bladder lseion, the early phase was superior to the late phase, and for evaluation of the ureter, the delayed phase was useful. The precontrast image was inferior to that of the delayed phase. We suggest that for the detectioin and assessment of extension of urinary bladder lesion without scanning of the precontrast image, two-phase spiral CT is reliable.