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The purpose of this study was to analyze science curriculum and textbooks in Singapore to secure the appropriateness of energy education and to obtain implications for the composition of content elements in energy education of primary school. The results were as follows. First, the science curriculum in Singapore had an integrated approach to energy education by presenting essential takeaways and key inquiry questions. In addition, key inquiry questions linked the essential takeaways and detailed content elements hierarchically. Second, the content elements had a high ratio of ‘energy concept’ domain, and the ratio of ‘energy problem solving methods’ and ‘energy saving’ domain was low. Third, the inquiry activities presented in workbooks consisted of ones reflecting the basic skills for 3-4 lower block, and ones reflecting the integrated skills for 5-6 upper block. Also the proportion of experimenting using apparatus and equipment was high. Based on the above research, revision of the curriculum in the future will require unit setting and content composition from an integrated viewpoint beyond the detailed subject area. In addition, it is necessary to increase the weight of ‘energy problem solving methods’ and ‘energy saving’ domain, and to construct experimenting activities using specific apparatus and equipment. 본 연구의 목적은 싱가포르의 과학교육과정과 교과서를 분석하여 우리나라 초등학교 에너지 교육의 적정성을 확보하고, 내용 요소 구성에 대한 시사점을 얻는데 있다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 싱가포르 과학교육과정에는 필수 개념과 핵심탐구질문을 제시하여 에너지 교육에 대해 통합적으로 접근하고 있다. 또한, 핵심탐구질문이 필수 개념과 세부 내용 요소를 위계적으로 연결해 주고 있다. 둘째, 내용 요소는 에너지 개념 영역의 비율이 높고, 에너지 문제 해결 방안이나 에너지 절약 생활 영역의 비율은 낮았다. 셋째, 워크북의 탐구 활동은 3~4학년군의 경우, 기초탐구 기능 중심, 5~6학년군은 통합탐구 기능 중심으로 구성되어 있고, 도구와 장치를 활용한 실험하기의 비중이 높게 나타났다. 이상의 연구를 바탕으로 할 때, 추후 교육과정 개정에서는 교과 영역을 넘어서는 통합적 관점에서의 단원 설정과 내용 구성이 필요할 것으로 본다. 또한, 에너지 문제 해결 방안, 에너지 절약 생활에 속하는 내용 요소의 비중을 늘리고, 구체적인 도구와 장치를 활용하는 통합적 탐구 활동의 구성이 필요할 것으로 사료된다.
For Gф -sequences ∅i and κ-functions κi(i = 1, 2, 3) we obtain the most general H¨older type inequalities on the functions of GκGф -bounded variations.
External bonding of steel or FRP plates to reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been a popular method for strengthening RC structures; however, unexpected premature failure often occurs due to debonding between the concrete and the epoxy. We proposed a Coulomb criterion with a constant failure surface as the debonding failure criterion for the concrete-epoxy interface. Diagonal shear bonding tests were conducted to determine the debonding properties that were related to the failure criterion, such as the angle of internal friction and the coefficient of cohesion. In addition, an interface element that utilized the Coulomb criterion was implemented in a nonlinear finite element analysis program to simulate debonding failure behavior. Experimental studies and numerical analysies on RC beams strengthened by an externally bonded steel or FRP plate were used to determine the range of the coefficient of cohesion. The results that were presented prove that premature failure loads of strengthened RC beams can be predicted with using the bonding properties and the finite element program with including the proposed Coulomb criterion.
The purpose of this study was to find out the implications by analyzing how science core competencies introduced in the 2015 revised national curriculum were reflected in the inquiry activities of middle school science textbooks. The results were as follows. First, The total frequency of core competencies presented in the inquiry activities of four kinds of science textbooks was 1,135 times. The frequency of core competencies in the first-grade textbooks applied to the free school year program was about 70% level compared to the second and third grades. The composition ratio was high in ‘scientific inquiry’ and ‘scientific communication’, and relatively low in ‘scientific problem solving’ and ‘scientific participation and lifelong learning’. Second, in the areas of movement and energy, matter, earth and space, the ratio of scientific inquiry ability was highest, but in the areas of life and integration, scientific communication ability was the highest. Third, the analysis of core competencies for each unit of life area showed the highest proportions of scientific communication ability in ‘biodiversity’, ‘animal and energy’, ‘stimulation and reaction’ and ‘reproduction and inheritance’ unit. On the other hand, scientific inquiry ability was the highest in ‘plant and energy’ unit. The proportion of core competencies by publishers differs, suggesting that specific agreements and guidelines for implementation after the curriculum notice need to be shared. In addition, there is a need for the plan to connect the curriculum’s goals, contents, teaching and learning methods, and evaluations with a focus on core competencies.
This study was carried out to analyze the inquiry activity for metabolism contents including photosynthesis and respiration unit in high school BiologyⅡ textbooks by the 7th curriculum. According to the results, the average proportions of respiration unit is higher than one of photosynthesis unit differing in description formula and contents depending on textbook writers. The objectives of education for concerning unit is described as concentrating on cognitive ones including contents factors, not affective or psychomotor. It was shown that inquiry activity composed of the observation & experiment, data interpretation and debate & investigation activity in analyzed textbooks was totally 19 times in photosynthesis unit and 16 times in respiration, and the average was 9 in photosynthesis and 4.8 in respiration. Especially, the proportion of observation & experiment activity for the respiration unit was less than photosynthesis. Comparing to contents and procedures of the inquiry activity proposed in metabolism chapters showed that experimental contents and implements in the textbooks were generally to be like, but differed in experimental materials, processes and data management methods in details.
In this article some generalized refinements of some inequalities for real quasi-cinvex, convex, concave, s-convex, s-concave, and α-star s-convex mappings are obtained.