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학생들이 문장으로 이루어진 문제를 해결과정에서 발생하는 오류의 유형을 분류하고, 각각의 오류 유형을 보인 학생들의 면담(인터뷰)을 통하여 오류를 범하게 된 요인을 분석하였다. 연구결과에 따라 나타난 대표적인 오류 유형은 ‘문항 이해의 부족', ‘풀이과정의 오류', ‘정리나 정의에 대한 왜곡된 이해', ‘이기과정의 오류', ‘기술적 오류', ‘풀이과정 생략' 등으로 나타났다. 또한 일부 학생들은 문장제에 대한 부담감으로 문제를 해결하기보다는 포기하는 현상이 나타났으며, 학생들은 문장으로 이루어진 문제를 해결을 하기 위해서 무엇보다 문제에 대한 이해가 필요한데, 이 부분이 절대적으로 부족하여 문제에서 주어진 자료를 자의적으로 판단하고 활용하는 경향이 짙게 보였다. 교사는 학생들이 문장제 문제 해결과정에서 발생하는 오류를 미리 파악하고 이를 보안할 수 있는 교수-학습방법으로 학생들을 지도한다면 오류를 사전에 예방하여 발생빈도를 줄일 수 있고, 학생들로 하여금 효과적인 학습이 이루어 질 수 있을 것이다.
In this paper, an emergency collision avoidance system is proposed by including not only braking but also steering control actions. The minimum distance to avoid collision is calculated separately for braking and steering based on the relative motion to the surrounding vehicles and the lane information obtained through the vision sensor. For steering avoidance control, an optimal control input is calculated through the model predictive control that satisfies constraints such as safe avoidance region created by surrounding vehicles and capacity of the vehicle actuator. In particular, for avoiding collision by lane changing, the maximum lateral acceleration and the maximum angle of the trajectory are considered. In addition, the abrupt lateral movement in avoidance causes nonlinear characteristics in tires and, thus, tire parameters are estimated through EKF (Extended Kalman Filter) to improve model prediction accuracy. The control intervention time of avoidance maneuvering is determined for braking and steering, respectively. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm of integrating AEB (Autonomous Emergency Braking) and AES (Autonomous Emergency Steering) can effectively avoid the collision in critical situations and that the host vehicle can still maintain the safety inside the road boundary.
To examine and identify the changing pattern of published articles in the otology literatureover the past several decades. We used a variety of search engines available throughPubMed.gov based on key words in the following categories: diagnosis, diagnostic tools,and therapeutic tools. The number of searchable key words increased from 1945 to thepresent. Overall, there has been a major shift in topics cover in the otological literature. Mostrecently, there has been significant increases in the following categories: age-related hearingloss, speech discrimination, and cochlear implantation. Based on this analysis, we believethese represent the areas of major research in the field of otology today. The presentstudy is a bibliometric analysis of the changing pattern of published articles using a newanalytic approach. The results identify the shifting topics of research in otology and mightbe helpful for future studies in Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.
Fluctuating hearing loss and vertigo are the typical presentations of Meniere's disease. However,it is unusual that fluctuating hearing loss and vertigo are caused by vertebral artery occlusionor cerebral infarction. Here, we described the case of a 54-year-old male patient withhypertension and diabetes mellitus who presented with fluctuating hearing loss in his leftear and severe whirling-type dizziness without associated neurological signs or symptoms. Temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal. He was diagnosed with a possibleMeniere's disease and started conservative treatment. Eight years later, the patient developeddysarthria and left-side weakness. Brain MRI revealed right anterior medullary infarction,and cerebral angiography showed occlusion of the right vertebral artery. In thiscase, we attempted to review the initial imaging study and reported the characteristics ofthe case.
urpose: The aim of this study was to set the school-level educational goals and objectives, based on the needs analysis, by modified Delphi method. Methods: A needs analysis and workshops were performed to establish educational goals and objectives. The needs analysis comprised 3 rounds of questionnaires and a panel and reference group that compared the results. Various workshops were held to set, outline, develop, and promote the educational goals and objectives and perform a satisfaction survey. Results: In the needs analysis, we identified 8 keywords for ‘ends' and 12 for ‘means' with regard to educational goals and 25 keywords for educational objectives, which were summarized in 5 factors (categories). There were significant differences between the panel and reference groups. Through the workshops, we established new educational goal and objectives that met with high satisfaction among members. Conclusion: The developmental process with which the educational goals and objectives were established through a needs analysis and workshops was effective, efficient, and supportive in medical education.