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      • JPEG 영상의 저작권 보호를 위한 Digital Watermarking 알고리즘

        박은숙,우종원,이석희,허윤석,조기형,Park, Eun-Suk,Woo, Jong-Won,Lee, Seok-Hee,Heo, Yoon-Seok,Cho, Ki-Hyung 한국정보처리학회 2000 정보처리논문지 Vol.7 No.1

        In this paper, we propose the method of embedding the encrypted digital watermark in quantization coefficient when we encode the image data in the process of JPEC. The proposed method is as following. After a DCT coefficient of each block is quantized, we arrange the quantization coefficient as on dimension with a zigzag scan and replace each block. By applying even-odd feature of frequency of the encrypted watermark to a quantization coefficient of some fixed domain of replaced each block and embedding it, we obtain the compressed image data by encoding after placing it in the order prior to replacement. The advantages of the proposed method here are as follows: We can embed many information keeping a secret as much as possible by using the algorithm of block replacement. We can control the amount of embedding of each use, as we embed the encrypted information by selecting some fixed domain of a quantization coefficient, we can fix the embedding data regardless of the image and the value of quantization. We verified the results by experiments and analyzed the efficiency of them in comparison with the former study. 본 논문에서는 암호화된 디지털 워터마크를 JPEG 부호화 과정 중 양자화 계수에 합성하는 디지털 워터마킹 방법을 제안한다. 제안된 워터마킹 방법은 다음과 같다. 먼저 각 블록의 DCT 계수를 양자화 한 후 지그재그 스캔으로 양자화 계수를 1차원으로 배열하여 각 블록을 치환한다. 치환된 각 블록의 일정 영역의 양자화 계수에 암호화된 워터마크를 주파수의 우기성을 적용, 합성한다. 합성이 끝난 후 치환되기 전 순서로 다시 복원하여 부호화 과정을 거쳐 압축된 영상데이터를 얻는다. 본 논문에서 제안된 방식은 합성 전 블록 치환 알고리즘을 사용함으로써 보안을 최대한 유지하면서 많은 정보를 합성할 수 있다. 또한 양자화 계수의 일정 영역을 선택하여 암호화된 정보를 합성하기 때문에 용도에 따른 합성량을 조절 할 수가 있고, 영상 및 양자화 값과 상관없이 합성 데이터를 고정시킬 수 있는 장점이 있다. 본 논문에서는 실험을 통해서 그 결과를 검증하고 기존 연구와의 비교 및 그에 따른 성능을 분석하였다.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        장애아 어머니의 불확실성, 사회적 지지 및 무력감

        박은숙,오원옥,Park Eun Sook,Oh Won Oak 한국아동간호학회 1999 Child Health Nursing Research Vol.5 No.2

        The purposes of this study were to measure the degree of perceived uncertainty, social support & powerlessness, to examine the relationship between the perceived uncertainty, social support & powerlessness and then to find the predictors of powerlessness in mother's of handicapped children. The subjects of this study consist of 102 mothers of handicapped children, registered at rehabilitation & handicapped children school. Data was collected from September 1998 to March 1999. The tools used in this study were Mishel's the Parents' Perception of Uncertainty Scale (28 item, 4 likert scale), Miller's Powerlessness measurement Scale(28 itewt 4 likert scale) & Cohen's Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (40 items, 4 likert scale). Data was analyzed by t-test, ANOVA, Duncan comparison, Pearson Correlation coefficient & Stepwise multiple regression Results of this study are summarized as follows : 1. Mothers perceived their uncertainty to be slightly high(Mn 2.50). The degree of perceived uncertainty by the four components were followed as : lack of clarity(2.69), unpredictability(2.56), ambiguity(2.56) & lack of information(2.46). The degree of perceived uncertainty of the mothers of handicapped children revealed to be influenced significantly by age of children, admission experience, disability types of children. 2. The degree of mothers' powerlessness was measured to be slightly high(Mn 2.14). The degree of perceived powerlessness of the mothers with handicapped children revealed to be influenced significantly by age of children, duration of illness admission experience,8E marital status of the mothers. 3. Mothers perceived their social support to be slightly high(Mn 2.71). The degree of perceived social support revealed to be influenced significantly by sex of children, married state of mothers. 4. Mothers' uncertainty was related positively to the mothers' powerlessness(r=.33, p=.0008). And also mothers' powerlessness was related inversely to social support(r=-.50, p=.0001). But, mothers' uncertainty was not related to social support significantly. 5. To analyze the variables which affect powerlessness, stepwise regression was implemented. As a result, about 61% of the powerlessness were explained by social support, marital status of the mothers and perceived uncertainty. Based upon these results, it is recommended that the nurses, who are caring handicapped children and their families, provide various support programs for them to overcome their difficulties. Also programs which decrease the uncertainty & powerlessness used social support multidimensionally & individually are recommended to be developed.

      • 마이크로소프트의 네트워크 전략 세계를 하나로 '빅 브라더의 꿈'

        박은숙,Park, Eun-Suk 한국정보통신집흥협회 1995 정보화사회 Vol.95 No.-

        통신위성을 이용한 하나의 네트워크, MSN으로 세계를 묶고, 비디오 및 오디오 전송에 서버프로그램인 타이거를 사용하며, 그 단말에 윈도 95를 공급, 가정에서 글로벌 네트워크까지 일체형으로 연결되는 시스템을 구상 하고 있는 마이크로소프트의 네트워크 전략은 구체적으로 무엇인가.

      • 흉추에 생긴 MRSA에 의한 신생아 골수염 1례

        박은숙,신선희,김성구,윤혜선,Park, Eun Sook,Shin, Seon Hee,Kim, Sung Goo,Yoon, Hae Sun 대한소아감염학회 2002 Pediatric Infection and Vaccine Vol.9 No.2

        골수염은 신생아에서는 드문 질환이며 신생아 중환자실 입원 환아 100명당 1~3명 정도에서 나타난다. 척추의 골수염은 이 중 1~2%를 차지하며 진단상의 어려움과 합병증으로 치료가 어렵다. 환아는 재태연령 34+2주, 출생체중 1.6 kg으로 생후 22일째 혈액 배양에서 MRSA가 발견되어 2주간 항생제 치료 후 다시 발열이 있어 입원치료 하였다. 자기 공명 영상상 흉추 7~8 부위의 골수염이 나타나 8주간의 vancomycin 정맥치료 결과 임상적, 방사선학적으로 호전되어 퇴원하였다. 저자들은 MRSA의 감염으로 척추의 골수염을 가진 신생아 1례를 경험하였기에 보고하는 바이다. Vertebral osteomyelitis represents only 1% to 2% of osteomyelitis and may pose a diagnostic conundrum, with disastrous consequences if diagnosis and therapy are delayed. We report a neonate with the unique association of vertebral osteomyelitis and MRSA infection. A 1-month-old boy was admitted to the hospital for evaluation of high fever and decreased oral intake. He was born at 34 wks, and his birth weight was 1.6 kg. We founded MRSA on his blood culture. Magnetic resonance imaging study showed findings of T7-T8 vertebral osteomyelitis. With 8 weeks of intravenous vancomycin treatment, the patient improved clinically and radiologically.

      • Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus-Mediated Gene Transfer in Homocystinuria Mice

        박은숙,Park, Eun-Sook The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic Disease 2005 대한유전성대사질환학회지 Vol.5 No.1

        Homocystinuria is a metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of cystathionine ${\beta}$-synthase (CBS). Patients with homocystinuria show clinical symptoms such as mental retardation, lens dislocation, vascular disease with life-threatening thromboembolisms and skeletal deformities. Generally, the major treatments for CBS deficiency include pharmacologic doses of pyridoxine or dietary restriction of methionine. However, there is no effective treatment for this disease up till today and gene therapy can be an attractive novel approach to treatment of the disease. We investigated whether a recombinant adeno-associated virus could be used as a CBS gene transfer vector to reduce the excessive homocysteine level in the homocystinuria mouse model. Recombinant adeno-associated virus vector encoding the human CBS gene (rAAV-hCBS), driven by EF1-a promoter, was infused into CBS-deficient mice ($CBS^{-/-}$) via intramuscular (IM) and intraperitoneal (IP) injection. IP injection was more efficient than IM injection for prolongation of lives and reduction of plasma homocysteine levels. After 2 weeks of gene transfer by IP injection, serum homocysteine level was significantly decreased in treated mice compared with the age-matched controls and the life span was extended about 1.5 times. Also, increased expression of CBS gene was observed by immunohistochemical staining in livers of treated $CBS^{-/-}$ mice and microvesicular lipid droplets was decreased in cytoplasm of liver. These results demonstrate the possibility and efficacy of gene therapy by AAV gene transfer in homocystinuria mice.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        만성질환아 어머니의 질병에 대한 불확실성 정도와 양육태도

        박은숙,Park Eun Sook 한국아동간호학회 1996 Child Health Nursing Research Vol.2 No.2

        The purposes of this study were to measure the degree of perceived uncertainty and to identify the rearing attitudes of mothers with chronically ill children, and to examine the relationship between the perceived uncertainty and the rearing attitude of these mothers. The subjects of this study consisted of 133 mothers with chronically ill children, registered at 2 university hospitals in Seoul. Data was collected from April 1 to May 31, 1996. The Parents' Perception of Uncertainty Scale(28-item 4 point scale) and the Maternal Behavior Research Instrument (49-item 5 point scale) were used. Data was analyzed by Cluster analysis, ANOVA MANOVA and t-test. Results of this study are summarized as follows : 1. Mothers perceived their uncertainty to be slightly high (Mn 2.48). The degree of perceived uncertainty by the four components slightly differed unpredictability(2.72), lack in clarity(2.58), vagueness (2.52) and lack of information(2.04) . The degree of perceived uncertainty of mothers with ill children revealed to be influenced significantly by the age of the ill children, duration of illness after the diagnosis, and the experience of hospitalization. 2. Among the rearing attitudes : moderatlely high affective(Mn 3.98) and resrictive(Mn 3.58) attitudes of mothers toward their ill children were identified. Mothers tend to give positive evaluations of their childrens' behaviors (Mn 3.38) and less rejection(Mn 2.81). 3. Mothers' rearing attitude were correlated with the degree of perceived uncertainty in illness ; mothers in the Low Perceived Uncertainty Group (Mn 1.99) revealed the highest affective (Mn 4.08), the lowest resrictive(Mn. 2.72) attitudes and tendency to give positive evaluations of their childrens' behaviors (Mn 3.54) compared to the High Perceived Uncertainty Group(Mn 3.26) and Moderate Perceived Uncertaity Group(Mn 2.57). 4. The degree of perceived uncertainty, the duration of illness after the diagnosis and the experience of hospitalization revealed to be significantly influential to the rearing attitude of mothers with chronically ill children. From the above results, it can be concluded that predicting and controlling mothers' uncertainty are necessary for improved, efficient nursing interventions and normal growth & development of the chronically ill children.

      • 병원중심 가정간호관리대상 범위 확대를 위한 기초연구(II) - 자동차보험가입 입원환자를 대상으로 -

        박은숙,이숙자,박영주,유호신,Park, Eun-Sook,Lee, Sook-Ja,Park, Young-Ju,Ryu, Ho-Sihn 한국가정간호학회 2000 가정간호학회지 Vol.7 No.1

        This study was an attempt to encourage the development of a rehabilitation delivery system and programs as a substitute service for hospitalization on the case of car accident patients, such as hospital based home health care nursing services. Various substitute services for hospitalization are required to curtail the length of stay for inpatients who were hospitalized with car accident compensation insurance. It focused on developing an estimation an early discharge day for car accident inpatients based on detailed statements of treatment for 111 inpatients who were hospitalized at the General Hospital in 1997. This study had four specific purposes as follows. First. to find out the utilization of medical services. Second, to estimate the time of early discharge and income increasing effect based on early discharge for those patients. Third, to identify the factors affecting total medical expenditure and the length of stay for those inpatients. Forth, to figure out the need of utilizing home health care nursing service for accident patients. In order to analyze the length of stay and medical expenditure for inpatients who were hospitalized due to car accidents, the authors conducted micro- and macro-analysis of medical and medical expenditure records. Micro-analysis was done by nominal group discussion of 4 expertise with the critical criteria, such as a decrease in the amount of treatment after surgery, treatments, tests, drugs and changes in the test consistency, drug methods, vital signs, start of ROM exercise, doctor's order, patient's outside visiting ability, and stable conditions. In addition to identifying variables affecting medical expenditure, and the length of stay and income effect due to early discharge day, the data was analyzed with a multiple regression analysis and linear regression analysis model by SPSS-PC for windows and Excell program. Results of this study were as follows. First. the mean length of stay was 50.3 days. whereas the mean length of stay due to early discharge was 34.3 days at the hospital. The estimation of time of early discharge depended on the length of stay. The longer the length of stay, the longer the length of time of early discharge : for instance a length of stay under 10 days was estimated as correlating to a mean length of stay of 6.6 days and early discharge of 6.5. The mean length of stay was 217.4 days and the time of early discharge was 110.1 respectively. The mean medical expenditure per day was found to be 169.085 Won and the mean medical expenditure per day showed negative linear trends according to the length of stay at the hospital. The estimation results of the income effect due to being discharged 16 days early was around 2,244,000 won per bed. However. this sum does not represent the real benefits resulting from early discharge, but rather the income increasing amount without considering medical prime cost in the general hospital. Therefore, further analysis is required on the cost containments and benefits as turn over rate per bed as the medical prime costs. The length of stay was most significant and was positive to the total medical expenditure, as expected. Surgery and patient's residential area was also an important variable in explaining medical expenditure. The level of complications was the most significant variable in explaining the length of stay. There was a high level for need a home health care nursing service which further supports early discharge for accident patients. In addition, when the patient was discharged. they needed follow up care for complications suffered during the car accident. $86.8\%$ of discharged patients responded that they needed home health services after early discharge. From these research findings, the following suggestions have been drawn. Strategies on a health care delivery system must be developed in order to focus on the consumer's needs and being planned for 21 century health policy in Korea. Community based int

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        만성질환아 어머니의 아동질병으로 인한 불확실성 경험

        박은숙,Park Eun Sook,Martinson M.I. 한국아동간호학회 1998 Child Health Nursing Research Vol.4 No.2

        The purpose of this study was to build a substantive theory about the experience of the maternal uncertainty in childhood chronic illness. The qualitative research method used was grounded theory. The interviewees were 12 mothers who have cared for a child who had chronic illness. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with audiotape recording done by the investigator over a period of nine months. The data were analyzed simutaneously by a constant comparative method in which new data were continuously coded into categories and properties according to Strauss and Corbin's methodology. The 34 concepts were identified as a result of analyzing the grounded data. Ten categories emerged from the analysis. The categories were lack of clarity, unpredictability, unfamiliarity, negative change, anxiety, devotion normalization and burn-out. Causal conditions included : lack of clarity, unpredictability, unfamiliarity and change ; central phenomena : anxiety, being perplexed ; context. seriousness of illness, support ; intervening condition : belief action/interaction strategies devotion, overprotection ; consequences : normalization, burn-out. These categories were synthesized into the core concept-anxiety. The process of experiencing uncertainty was 1) Entering the world of uncertainty, 2) Struggling in the tunnel of uncertainty, 3) Reconstruction of the situation of uncertainty. Four hypotheses were derived from the analysis : (1) The higher the lack of clarity, unpredictability, unfamiliaity, change, the higher the level of uncertainty (2) The more serious the illness and the less the support, the higher the level of uncertainty. (3) The positive believes will influence the devoted care and normalization of the family life. Through this substantive theory, pediatric nurses can understand the process of experiencing maternal uncertainty in childhood chronic illness. Further research to build substantive theories to explain other uncertainties may contribute to a formal theory of how normalization is achieved in the family with chronically ill child.

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