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The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity of the former-latter term divide invitation in entrance examination for a univrsity by analyzing the change of school register, the adaptation and affection in college life, the scores of entrance examination and university grades. As the sample for this study, 555 college students attended in the school year, 1988 were selected according to the judgement sampling method in Kyunsung University. The materials used for this study are the change of school register, the scores of entrance examination and university grades. The tool is the questionnaire made by the researcher, which is concerning with the adaptation and affection in college life. The statistical methods used in this study are the percentage, the Pearson's product moment correlation, and ANOVA techniques with the SPSS programs. Major findings of this study are sd follows; 1) Considering the change of school register, the former-latter term divided invitation is valid in College of Law and Political Science, College of Commerce and Economics, and College of Pharmacy but it is not valid in College of Liberal Arts, College of Science and College of Engineering. 2) There are a few differences between the former group and the latter group in the adaptation and affection in Collage life but these are not much significant in statistical level. 3) The scores of unofficial report of the latter group are higher than those of the former group and those difference are significant in statistical level. 4) The coefficients of correlation between the scores of unofficial report and the university grades are higher than those of the scores of government entrance examination and the university grades. In other words, the scores of unofficial report more correctly predict the university grades than the scores of government entrance examination. 5) The coefficients of correlation between the achievements of the cultural subjects and the scores government entrance examination or unofficial report are higher than those of the achievements of the major subjects and the scores of the government entrance examination or unofficial report. In other words, being promoting to higher school year, the predictability of the score the entrance examination to the university grades is low. 6) The university grades of the latter group are higher than those of the former group, and differences between the two groups are sigificant in statistical level.
한국산 야생 식용버섯의 무기성분에 관한 연구 : 뽕나무버섯 , 뽕나무버섯부치 , 벚꽃버섯 , 민자주방망이버섯 , 자주방망이버섯아재비 , 붉은산무명버섯의 미량금속원소 Trace Mineral Elements of Armillariella Mella , Hygrophorus russula , Armillariella tabescens , Lepista nuda and lepista sordida , Hygrocybe conica .
In order to determine of trace mineral elements of wild edible mushrooms in Korea, the dried carpophores of Armillariella mella(Vahl.ex Fr.) karst., Armillariella tabescens(Scop.) Sing., Lepista nuda(Bull.ex Fr.) Cooke and Lepista sordida(Schum.ex Fr.) Sing., Hygrophorus russula (Schaeff.ex Fr.) Qu'el., Hygrocybe conica(Scop.ex Fr.) Kummur were incinerated and analyzed by an atom adsorption spectrophotometry. The six mushrooms contained ubiquitously potassium, iron, zinc, sodium, manganase, copper and calsium in that order, and the content of potassium was the highest than other inorganic components and the content of zinc in Hygrocybe conica was especially the most than the other five mushrooms. Total contents of inorganic components(except Cd) were universally the highest in Hygrocybe conica than other five mushrooms, and decrease in order Hygrophorus russula, lepista nuda, lepista sordida, Aarmillariella mella and Armillariella tabescens. Calsium was not present in Amillariella mella and lepista nuda, and copper not in Hygrocybe conica, and content of cadimium in Hygrophorus russula and Hygrocybe conica were trace.
Species of genus Pluteus were cellected in Korea from 1984 to 1991. Eight species in Pluteus were identified, and six species were confirmed new to Korea and described here; Pluteus atromarginatus, P. spinulosus, P. patricius, P. depauperatus, P. satur, and P. chrysophlebius ssp. sublaevigatus.
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In order to investigate the antitumor components of Korean wild higher fungi, the carpo-phores of Pholiota squarrosa collected in Kaung Nung area were extracted with water by refluxing for eight hours at 80-90.deg. C. The extracts were dialized for six days against distilled water and lyophilized to produce crude polysaccharide powders. They were found to have the antitumor activity against sarcoma 180 implanted in mice. Especially, the inhibition ratio of the extract of Pholiota squarrosa was 78.7% in the dose of 20mg/kg/day for the period of ten days. The tumor in two of the ten mice was completely regressed. The components of these aqueous extracts were found to be polysaccharide and protein. The total polysaccharide was 42% by Anthrone method and the protein was 55% by Lowry-Folin method in the antitumor component of Pholiota squarrosa.
두부는 양질의 단백질을 주성분으로 한 대중 식품으로 소비량이 계속 증가하고 있다. 두부는 변질 발생 가능성이 높은 고위험 식품에 해당되지만, 두부제조업체는 82.4%가 종업원 5인 이하 소규모로 체계적인 식품안전관리를 기대하기 어려운 실정이다. HACCP(Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point : 위해요소 중점관리제도)는 식품안전성과 비용절감을 효율적으로 확보할 수 있는 체계적, 지속적인 공정관리 방법이다. 본 연구는 두부제조업체의 실정에 맞는 HACCP시스템을 개발하여 적용하고 그 성과를 확인함으로써 두부 HACCP 시스템의 일반적 모델을 확정하고 다른 중소업체 및 대기업으로 이를 확산시키려고 시행하였다. 규모별 4개 두부제조업체를 대상으로 판 두부와 포장 판 두부의 HACCP 계획을 Codex의 HACCP 적용 지침에 따라 현장 실무자와 협력하여 수립하였다. HACCP팀 편성, HACCP 범위 및 목적의 설정, 제품 기술 및 사용자 의도의 결정, 공정도 작성 및 현장 검증, 위해 분석 및 예방책식별, CCP(중요관리점)의 식별, CL(관리한계기준) 설정, CCP 모니터링 시스템 수립, 개선조치 설정, 검증절차 수립, 기록 및 문서화의 순서로 HACCP 계획을 작성하였다. 공정 중 CCP는 선별 공정, 냉각 공정, 열처리 공정(판 두부는 제외)으로 결정하였고, 각각의 HACCP 계획에 따라 관리하였다. 제정된 HACCP시스템을 3개월간 시행한 후 그 성과를 HACCP 적용 이전과 이후의 미생물 검사를 통하여 확인하였다. 검사결과 HACCP 적용 이전의 판 두부 플라스틱 상자, 포장재, 완제품의 일반 세균수가 HACCP 적용 이후에 크게 감소되었다.(P<0.1) 두부제조업체의 실정에 맞는 HACCP시스템을 적용함으로써 위생관리 및 식품안정성 확보에 큰 성과가 있음이 확인되었다. This study aims at making a HACCP(Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) plan to be applied to soybean curd and verifing its effectiveness. First, we developed a general model of HACCP according to the guidelines of Codex (FAO/WHO). And we applied the model to 4 soybean curd workshops for 3 months. The HACCP model is composed of these procedures; HACCP team organization, production description, work flow chart, hazard analysis, CCP (critical control point) decision, CL (critical limit) establishment, monitoring method decision, correction, verification and documentation. CCP were selection procedure and refrigeration procedure in non-wrapped soybean curd. CCP were selection procedure, heat-sterilizing and refrigeration in wrapped soybean curd. The result of bacterial experiment after appling the model for 3 months, the bacterial numbers of soybean curd box, wrapper, and soybean curd production were lower after appling than before appling, the model. We could verify that the applications of the HACCP model were effective to the soybean curd workshops.
Raw-fish food contains a lot of moisture and is a high-protein food. It is a first-stage processed food taking a lot of manual work. Therefore, it is classified as a PHF food, very liable to cause a bacterial food-poisoning. But its manufacturers are usually small-sized and a systematic sanitation management is difficult to expect. But the manufacturer participating in this study produces chilled fresh raw-fish food. Fish are sliced into two fillets, which are packaged under vacuum, kept and distributed in refrigerators, and sold within a day. It is a newly-developed kind of raw-fish food, and a more improved kind of raw-fish food making possible a systematic sanitation management. The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a systematic and continuous process-control method which is very efficient for controling food sanitation and reducing the expenses. A new HACCP model has been developed to be applied to a large-sized chilled fresh raw-fish food manufacturer. To ascertain its efficiency, the baterial examination was done to its workplace and products. The significance test was done on its data by "SPSS 12.0 for Window" and "Mann-Whitney U Test". The numbers of bacteria on its final products were significantly different in flatfish and porgy. The number of bacteria tended to decrease in each time-differential sampling (P<.00l). The final food products showed no food-poisoning bacteria in all the time-differential tests and in all the samplings, which proves that the CCP of the HACCP system is under control. After the SSOP program was applied, no pathogenic bacteria were found in the work-place, and the kinds and numbers of bacteria decreased. The numbers of general bacteria and colon bacilli also showed a significant difference from those before the SSOP program in the filleting board (P<.05), in the skinning board (P<.0l), in the neck-removing knife (P<.05), and in the filleting knife (P<.01). The working equipments, periodically disinfected, also showed a significant difference in sanitary conditions (in the dehydrator, P<.05). The number of bacteria found on the food-touching surface was within the standard (below 500/l00 cm$^2$) After the SSOP program was applied, the general bacteria and colon bacilli were not found. The quality of water used in the food processing was also within the standard. The numbers of bacteria falling from the air in the work-place were negligible in all the samplings (<30CFU/l000ι). The staphylococci and fungi were not found.