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본 연구에서는 광산이나 오일샌드 등의 분야에서 적용되고 있는 슬러리 파이프 마모량 측정 방법과 슬러리 파이프의 마모량 예측에 관련된 이론식들을 문헌연구를 통해 살펴보고, 실제 싱가포르 슬러리 쉴드 TBM 현장에서 주기적으로 측정한 직선부 슬러리 파이프의 두께 측정 자료로부터 평균 일일 마모율과 굴착거리당 마모율을 산정하였다. Bukit Timah Granite의 풍화등급에 따른 마모율을 구하였는데, 풍화토에 가까운 G (V) 등급 지반 및 G (III)/G (V)의 복합지반에서의 마모율이 G(I)~G (IV)의 암반 등급지반에 비해서 1.5배 높게 나타났다. 슬러리 파이프 마모율은 슬러리 운송속도에 비례하여 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 향후 지반특성 별 파이프 마모율과 합리적인 관리두께 선정을 통하여 보다 최적화된 슬러리 파이프의 교체 및 회전 주기를 산정할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. In this study, we investigated the wear measurement methods for slurry pipe applied in the field of mining and oil sand industry and theoretical equations related to the prediction of wear in slurry pipe through literature review. Average daily wear rate and wear rate per excavated distance were determined from slurry discharge pipe thickness measurement data periodically measured at the actual slurry shield TBM site in Singapore. The wear rate of slurry pipe for Bukit Timah Granite was obtained. The wear rates for G (V) grade and mixed zone were 1.5 times higher than that of G (I) to G (IV) grade. Slurry pipe wear rate tends to increase in proportion to the slurry discharge velocity. The optimal slurry pipe replacement or rotation frequency can be estimated through the selection of the pipe wear rate considering geological condition and the reasonable pipe management thickness.
Objectives: Many countries try to efficiently deliver high quality healthcare services at lower and manageable costs where healthcare information and communication technologies (ICT) standardisation may play an important role. New Zealand provides a good model of healthcare ICT standardisation. The purpose of this study was to review the current healthcare ICT standardisation and progress in New Zealand. Methods: This study reviewed the reports regarding the healthcare ICT standardisation in New Zealand. We also investigated relevant websites related with the healthcare ICT standards, most of which were run by the government. Then, we summarised the governance structure, standardisation processes, and their output regarding the current healthcare ICT standards status of New Zealand. Results: New Zealand government bodies have established a set of healthcare ICT standards and clear guidelines and procedures for healthcare ICT standardisation. Government has actively participated in various enactments of healthcare ICT standards from the inception of ideas to their eventual retirement. Great achievements in eHealth have already been realized, and various standards are currently utilised at all levels of healthcare regionally and nationally. Standard clinical terminologies, such as International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) have been adopted and Health Level Seven (HL7) standards are actively used in health information exchanges. Conclusions: The government to New Zealand has well organised ICT institutions, guidelines, and regulations, as well as various programs, such as e-Medications and integrated care services. Local district health boards directly running hospitals have effectively adopted various new ICT standards. They might already be benefiting from improved efficiency resulting from healthcare ICT standardisation.
Objectives: Many healthcare organizations and professionals have had interests in healthcare information and communication technology (ICT). The objective of this study was to investigate the current status of overall healthcare ICT, especially focusing on Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems in Korea. Methods: This study used a part of the nationwide survey collected for the OECD benchmarking ICT study. The Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service conducted the survey from November 19, 2013 to January 10, 2014. This study followed the methodological guidelines of the OECD. A total of 2,093 hospitals and clinics, including long-term care hospitals, participated in the survey. Among them, 554 hospitals and 906 clinics were included in this study for the generalization of the results. Results: The adoption rates of EMR systems were 96.3% in hospitals and 95.7% in clinics. Most of the hospitals and clinics had high rates of healthcare information exchange (HIE) within the organization; however, there were extremely low HIE rates among external organizations. Most of the hospitals and clinics had EMR systems with clinical-decision-supporting functionalities. Ninety-six percent of the EMR systems of the hospitals and 89.2% of the clinic systems had checking functions, such as alerts or reminders, on contraindications of drug-drug and drug-age interaction. Conclusions: Korea has maintained a high healthcare ICT status compared to countries in the European Union. The EMR systems of hospitals and clinics in Korea had sophisticated functionalities; however, their HIE status was extremely low, which indicates the need for healthcare ICT standardization.