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Electrically conducting nylon 6/polypyrrole composite films and fabrics have been prepared by polymerizing pyrrole vapor in nylon 6 matrix containing cupric chloride as an oxidizing agent. After polymerization of pyrrole for 30 min, the conductivities of composites reach as high as 10^-3∼10^-2 S/cm depending on the content of oxidizing agent. The stability of conductivity to ambient air exposure is excellent ; there occurs little change in conductivity on exposing the composites to ambient air for one month. The nylon 6 composite fabrics containing 14∼25 wt.% of polypyrrole show an excellent antistatic properties.
The spreading behavior of mixed monolayer of polystyrene with arachidic acid at the air-water interface was studied by measuring the surface pressure(π)-surface area per molecule(A) isotherms. Since polystyrene has no hydrophilic group, the π -A isotherms appear to support that polystyrene exists in a dense spherical form at the air-water interface. The observed transfer ratio and wettability indicated that the mixed LB films have been deposited in Y-type. Through the X-ray diffraction measurements, the structure of polystyrene/Cd arachidate mixed LB films has been confirmed as well-ordered structure.
Electrically conducting cellulose acetate (CA )/poly( pyrrole) (PPy) composites were prepared by eletrochemical polymerization of pyrrole in an insulating CA matrix and their electrochemical properties were studied. CA/PPy composite film on platinum electrode could be repeatedly driven between the conducting and insulating state. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed that the redox reaction of CA/PPy composite was not electrochemically reversible and dependent on the nature of the polymerization conditions such as the type and concentration of the electrolyte, thickness of CA matrix film and polymerization temperature. The relationship between anodic peak current and scan rate during potential-cycling indicated that the redox reaction of CA/ PPy composite on platinum electrode was diffusion-controlled reaction.
Electrically conducting Poly(carbonate)(PC)/Poly(pyrrole)(PPy) composite films were synthesized by exposing PC films containing ferric chloride as an oxidant to pyrrole vapour under various polymerization conditions. After pyrrole was polymerized for two hours in PC matrix, the composite films showed the conductivity as high as 10^-4∼10^-3 S/cm and it increased with incresing the concentration of the oxidant, and polymerization time. The rate constant of the degradation of electrical conductivity for PC/PPy composite film containing 30 wt % of FeCl_3 has suggested that the conductivity loss of one order of magnitude takes about 320 hours, and the degradation of the electrical conductivity was found to obey first -order reaction kinetics and may involve the reaction of the delocalized carbenium ion along the PPy backbone with oxygen or water. From the result of thermogravimetric analysis(TGA), we knew that the composite film was thermally stable up to 320℃.
The electrochemical properties of poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN)/poly(pyrrole) (PPy) composites prepared by electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole in an insulating PAN matrix were studied. PAN/PPy composite film on platinum electrode could be repeatedly driven between the conducting and insulating state. Cyclic voltammograms(CVs) showed that the redox reaction of PAN/PPy composite was not electrochemically reversible and dependent on the nature of the electrolyte used. CVs also showed that the growth rate of ppy in PAN matrix was influenced by the polymerization conditions such as the type and the concentration of the electrolyte, the thickness of PAN matrix film, and the anodic switching potential. The relationship between anodic peak current and scan rate during the potential-cycling indicated that the redox reaction of PAN/ PPy composite on platinum electrode was diffusion-controlled reaction.
The electroconductive arachidic acid/ polypyrrole composite films have been synthesized by exposing the arachidic acid Langmuir-Blodgett(LB) film contaning ferric chloride to pyrrole vapour. The spreading behavior of ferric arachidate on the subphase with different pH values has been studied by investigating the surface pressure-area isotherm, and the transfer ratio. The formation of polypyrrole in the matrix LB film can be confirmed by FT-IR spectra and scanning electron micrographs. The composite LB films prepared at 0℃ showed the more uniform morphology and the higher electroconductivity.
Amphiphilic monomer, N-octadecylacrylamide (N-ODA), having a long chain hydrophobic alkyl group and a hydrophilic amide group was synthesized from the reaction of acrylamide with 1-bromooctadecane in dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of KOH at room temperature for three hours. N-ODA monolayer was deposited on solid substrates, such as slide glass, KRS-5, and silicon wafer, by employing Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, under the appropriate deposition condition. Complete polymerization of monomer LB films was achieved by UV-irradiation for 220 seconds. The polymerized LB films were not soluble in ethanol that is a good solvent for monomer LB films. Negative resist patterns were generated by irradiation of the masked N-ODA monomer LB films with UV light followed by dissolution of the unirradiated portions with ethanol.
Melamine-formaldehyde microcapsules were prepared by conventional interfacial addition polymerization and characterized by Fourier transform(FTIR) spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of polymerization variables such as the nature and concentration of surfactants, agitation speed, and agitation time on the particle size and particle size distribution were investigated. FTIR spectroscopic data shoed that perfume oil was successfully encapsulated in the microcapsule. The nature of surfactants had profound effects on the particle size and particle size distribution. It was also found that the use of poly(vinyl alcohol) was critically important to prevent agglomeration of microcapsule particles.
Electrically conducting Poly(carbonate) (PC)/poly(pyrrole) (PPy) composite films were synthesized by exposing PC films containing ferric chloride as an oxidant to pyrrole vapour under various polymerization conditions. and their electrical conductivity and morphology were studied. After pyrrole was polymerized in PC matrix for two hours, the composite films showed the conductivity as high as 10-4~10-3S/cm and it increased with the concentration of the oxidant and the polymerization time and decreased with the polymerization temperature. Threshold conductivity was observed when the content of PPy in PC/PPy composite film was ca. 4.5~5 weight percent. The formation of PPy in PC matrix was confirmed by FT-IR spectra anal scanning electron micro-graphs. The x-ray diffraction curves indicated that talc structure or Pc/PPy composite film was amorphous. The conductivity increased one order of magnitude by mechanical stretching.