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It has become one recent trend in literary criticism to use Georges Bataille's theory as an efficient reading tool of D. H. Lawrence's novels. Many literary critics successfully locate the radical affinity of Lawrence's work with Bataille's work in terms of the recurrent questioning of the representing authority and the highly provocative and experimental narrative style. Clearly these approaches cannot be easily ignored as opportunistic revision of D. H. Lawrence studies. In fact, both Lawrence and Bataille are intellectually indebted to Lev Shestov. They embrace the unique combination of non-dogmatic thinking and aphoristic narrative style in Shestov's work. And the inventory of the Shestovian properties in the works of Lawrence and Bataille is rather extensive. However, any unmediated application of Bataille's theory to Lawrence's work fails. To appreciate and substantiate the complexity of the relationship between them we need to investigate their deceptively close similarities.
Globalization, once hailed as the spirit of redistribution and equality, is rapidly degenerating into a conglomerating organism of capitalist's selfish desire. Recent critical engagement with globalization leads to an attempt to find an alternative in the resurging cosmopolitanism. For instance, Jacques Derrida rejuvenated the 18th century urbane epistemology of cosmopolitanism in opposition to the French patriotic and xenophobic oppression on immigrants. Derrida urged us to remember the ancient practice of hospitality towards others, and replicated Immanuel Kant's cosmopolitan project of equality and universality. Yet we witness cosmopolitanism, especially combined with secularism, revealing its properties of parochialism. Étienne Balibar warns us against the danger of secular cosmopolitanism when he tries to rescue the hijap wearing female Islamic students at school from legal punishment in France. This returns us to D. H. Lawrence who lived in the twentieth century cosmopolitan Europe and mediated on the possible implications and manifestations of cosmopolitanism. In his writings Lawrence foresees the fatal conflation of cosmopolitanism and universalism and its impact on human psychology.
합금발명은 특허요건 판단 시 고려해야 할 여러 가지 사항이 존재하며, 바라보는 관점에 따라 선택발명으로 볼 수 있고, 수치한정발명으로도 볼 수 있다. 이런 특수성으로 인하여 합금발명은 특허요건을 정확히 판단하기가 비교적 어려운 발명이라고 할 수 있다. 따라서 합금발명의 특허요건 판단 시 합금성분, 합금성분의 조성범위, 합금성분의 조직상태, 그 합금만이 가지고 있는 고유한 성질 및, 또는 용도인 유용성을 어떻게 조합하여 판단하여야 하는지 살펴보고, 보다 정확한 판단을 하기 위하여 합금발명의 특허요건을 선택발명의 특허요건, 수치한정발명의 특허요건과 비교하여 보자.
Kangaroo is a sequel to the novels D. H. Lawrence wrote in 1920s. It records the displacement and emigration of Richard Lovatt Somers and his wife Harriett to Australia a few years after the First World War. As it charts Richard's cultural and political break from Europe, the novel provides an extended reflection on homelessness. In this way, Lawrence reinstates the 'ungrounding' experience of Lev Shestov's bezpochvennost which the previous novels such Aaron's Rod and Mr Noon express in moments when characters are 'unEnglished'. In Kanguroo Richard's exposure to the otherness of the Westralian bush makes him call into question the existing conjecture of thinking. This encounter with a defiant antipodean foreignness is inflected by Shestov's uncertainty principle. Lawrence turns the alien fauna into an agent of 'ungrounding' with a power to disintegrate the formal-logical antithesis of 'something and nothing'. This struggle of a displaced subject to situate himself in relation to a strange world is resonant of Shestov's attempt to liberate philosophy from dogmatic strictures. Shestov discounts the putative autonomy of a priori forms, and proposes to reinstate the uncertainty. Fundamental to this move is the rejection of any cognitive totality such as understood by the Neo-Kantian philosopher Wilhelm Windelband, Shestov's main adversary, the totality only possible within forms. Shestov's homage to groundlessness and homelessness towards a priori free zone is a reversal of conceptual totality. In this context uncertainty is invested with a metaphysical tenor. This thought has a parallel in Martin Heidegger's concept of the Unheimlisch. Heidegger, in his rejection of categorical understanding, constructs the Unheimlisch as 'ungrounding'. Heidegger's concept displays a striking similarity to Shestov's bezpochvennost. The Unheimlisch is not a 'grounding' to nihil, but an 'ungrounding'. Heidegger, like Shestov, retrieved the notion of 'ungrounding' in his critique of Neo-Kantian Wissenschaft and the subjectivist philosophy of modernity. Heidegger's Unheimlisch provides a useful frame of reference for Richard's reflection on 'his own existence'. The confrontation with the 'something and nothing' in the bush prompts Richard to peruse his own ground in an instance of Heideggerian 'ungroudning'. The affinity of Heidegger's thought with Shestov's bezpochvennost is not accidental. Shestov proposed the bezpochvennost cult to bring back uncertainty to the domain of 'grounding' philosophy which was culminated in Neo-Kantian Wissenschaft. Just as Shestov reinvented the epistemological mode of thinking, Heidegger strived to prise open the fissure between 'being' and 'thinking'. This dismantling of epistemological foundation and metaphysical support marks a cardinal departure from Neo-Kantian Wissenschaft. In Kangaroo Richard's encounter with the formless and invisible Australian nature inevitably raises a question about how to deliver non-normative 'thinking'. In my view this critical re-evaluation of existing beliefs derives from an internalization of Shestov's 'ungrounding' principle, the paradigm of which is Richard's encounter with the bush. That moment is a Lawrentian crucible, filled with uncertainty and fear. This crucible does not negate Richard's experience. In the trajectory of his encounter with the Shestovian challenge against formal-logical ideation Lawrence transformed the individual experience, no longer a locus of personal resentments, into a series of powerful questions about value system. The rehabilitation of 'thinking' from formal- logical foundations entails the existential necessity for total engagement with the real as well as a simultaneous realignment of grounds. Lawrence's impatience with 'old form' and his anger at post-war society drove him to loneliness and resentment. Yet the timely and welcome encounter with Shestov in 1919 added a creative stimulus to Lawrence's alienated state of mind it enabled him to undergo self-transformation as a writer.
Laryngeal chondrosarcoma is an uncomon cartilaginous tumor very rarely encountered in the head and neck but most commonly in the sarcoma of the larynx. They occur most often in middle aged and older men. The prognosis of this tumor is potentially poor and surgical resection is generally recomended for the treatment. No benefit of chemotherapy or radiotherapy in chond-rosarcoma has been documented in the literature. A 57 year-old male visited our clinic with history of dyspnea and hoarseness. cartilage. Neck computed tomography revealed a large calcified mas in the larynx. The perioperative frozen section showed it to be grade I chondrosarcoma of the cricoid cartilage. Conservative surgery with complete excision of tumor was performed through laryngofissure approach after tracheostomy. Follow up asesment was performed under close check up at 12 months after the surgery, but we found neither recurence nor metastasis. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2003 ;46 :790-3)
Trichofolliculoma is a rare skin lesion. It is an adnexal tumor of hair follicles, which was first described by Miescher. Trichofo-lliculoma is a hamartomatous lesion of hair follicle origin, intermediate in diferentiation between a hair follicle nevus and tri-choepithelioma as classified by Kligman and Pinkus. It usually manifests clinically as a small, slowly growing, well-demarcated, flesh-colored papule on head and neck. The diagnosis is dificult clinically and is based mainly on histopatholigic appearance. It is comonly misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst, nevus, and basal cell carcinoma. Treatment is by simple excision and recurrence is rare. sal vestibule with a review of literature. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2007 ;50 :265-7)
An abnormal course of carotid artery may surprise surgeons during surgery and result in an transient ischemic attack or other ischemic symptoms. We report an unusual case of kinking in the common carotid artery located below the right thyroid lobe, which was found during a total thyroidectomy in a 74-years old patient. We emphasize in this case how important it is to palpate the neck before surgeries such as tracheostomy, thyroid surgery and so on. (Korean J Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 2008;51:911-3) An abnormal course of carotid artery may surprise surgeons during surgery and result in an transient ischemic attack or other ischemic symptoms. We report an unusual case of kinking in the common carotid artery located below the right thyroid lobe, which was found during a total thyroidectomy in a 74-years old patient. We emphasize in this case how important it is to palpate the neck before surgeries such as tracheostomy, thyroid surgery and so on. (Korean J Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 2008;51:911-3)
Despite advances in imaging and antibiotic treatment, brain absces is still encountered occasionally and is one of the most sig-nificant life-threatening complications of otologic disease. Nowadays, mortality rates of up to 10 percent have been reported. itis media. In this case, underlying middle ear pathology showed chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma. Successful management of otogenic brain abscess still includes medical and surgical treatment. Initial surgical treatment of abscess is very controversial today. Some authors prefer the surgical excision of brain absces prior to the management of temporal bone, yet other authors prefer the surgery of temporal bone prior to the management of brain absces. Although an enterococus is a significant cause of uncommon clinical entities. Because of the relatively small number of individuals who develop brain abscess or meningitis due to an enterococcus, an appropriate therapy has not been well defined. We report a case of enterococcal otogenic brain abscess which was treated successfuly using antibiotics, immediate radical mastoidectomy and later stereotactic abscess drainage with a review of literatures. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2002 ;45 :1188-92)