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      • K-POP 가창 가사의 한일・일한 번역 전략 연구 : 음절수, 압운, 의미를 중심으로

        박세이 韓國外國語大學校 通飜譯大學院 2022 국내박사

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        This study aims to draw strategies to overcome the constraints and linguistic differences posed by singable translations of songs, and to identify commonalities and differences in the use of strategies depending on the directionality of translation by examining the types of translation strategies deployed in K-pop song lyrics. To achieve these goals, this dissertation presents the following research questions. (1) In cases where the syllable count is not identical between ST and TT, what strategies are used to achieve a singable TT? (2) What strategies are used to render rhymes from ST into TT? (3) What strategies are used to convey meaning from ST to TT? (4) Drawing upon the analyses of the translation strategies of syllable count, rhymes and meaning stated above, what commonalities and differences are found between Korean-Japanese and Japanese-Korean song translation? The present study analyzed K-pop songs released in Japan and Korea from the late 1990s through the year 2020 by Korean artists who debuted and achieved success in the Japanese market. A total of 190 translated songs were examined; 129 Korean-Japanese songs and 61 Japanese-Korean songs. The analytical framework this dissertation adopts is Franzon’s three layers of singability (2008) which suggests that a prosodic match, a poetic match and a semantic-reflexive match are the strategic choices available in song translation. Each of the three layers consists of elements that appear in the text lyrics. Among them, the scope of this paper’s analysis is limited to syllable count for a prosodic match, rhymes for a poetic match and depiction, i.e. the meaning of the lyrics, for a semantic-reflexive match. With respect to syllable count, the thesis examined what strategies were applied when there was a lack of correspondence in syllable count between ST and TT. With respect to rhymes, the strategies used to render rhymes from ST into TT were examined in each section of a song. With respect to meaning, the strategies used to convey meaning from ST to TT were investigated in each line and section of a song. Drawing from the analysis results, the following conclusions were reached. Firstly, in cases where there was a different syllable count between ST and TT, translators achieved singability by employing 1) the strategy of matching the syllable count on a phonological level and 2) the strategy of matching the syllable count on a musical level. The strategy of matching the syllable count on a phonological level was categorized into reduction of TT syllable count, use of English-Japanese mixed syllables in Korean-Japanese translation, and use of English-Korean mixed syllables in Japanese-Korean translation. Reduction of TT syllable count was further sub-categorized into diphthongization, deletion of a trailing identical vowel, deletion of the neutral vowel ‘ウ(/u/)’, and vowel devoicing. The strategy of matching the syllable count on a musical level was classified into altering ST rhythm and maintaining ST notes. Altering ST rhythm was further sub-divided into dividing notes, combining notes, adding notes and deleting notes, while maintaining ST notes comprised inserting syllables and stretching syllables - adjustments were made following the notes of the source music. Secondly, in delivering rhymes from ST to TT, preservation, elimination, addition and modification strategies were found. The amount of rhyme, which is related to the effects of rhyme, increased, was maintained or decreased in TT. A notable finding was that an attempt was made to facilitate rhymes through phonological restructuring. That is, slight adjustments to the pronunciation of certain words occurred for the sake of singability. Thirdly, in terms of conveying semantic meaning, strategies of meaning preservation and meaning deviation were observed. Meaning preservation refers to a high degree of semantic transfer, which is sub-categorized into complete preservation and partial deviation. The former is a strategy that reflects total ST meaning with significant details in TT, while the latter is one that adopts ST meaning deviation to a minimal degree in TT. Partial deviation includes such sub-strategies as addition, modification, omission, specification and generalization of ST meaning. The practice of meaning deviation is defined as the creation of replacement texts. This strategy is divided into complete deviation, characterized by a totally rewritten set of lyrics, and partial preservation, which allows slight reference to the source-text meaning. Another finding, based upon the operational definitions applied to classify the songs studied in this research, showed that the K-pop song translations featured all three phenomena: translations, adaptations and replacement texts. Lastly, the common characteristics of translation strategy shared between Korean-Japanese and Japanese-Korean song translation are as follows: In relation to the number of syllables, altering ST rhythm ranked the highest, and use of mixed syllables, the lowest. In terms of rhymes, the order appeared as: retention > elimination > addition > modification. As for the change in the amount of rhyme, the order appeared as: decrease > increase > no change. Regarding meaning, use of meaning preservation (i.e. complete preservation and partial deviation combined) ranked slightly higher than use of meaning deviation (i.e. complete deviation and partial preservation combined). The most commonly used strategy was partial deviation which involves adjustments (namely addition, modification, omission, specification, and generalization) to a degree in a bid to retain the central meaning of the original lines. There were also numerous cases when English words in ST were transferred to TT without translation. Furthermore, with the use of the operational definitions established in this research, a song adaptation, in which 20% to 80% (i.e. 20% or above, below 80%) of ST meaning is transferred, was found to be the most prevalent. The differences in translation strategy between Korean-Japanese and Japanese-Korean song translation are as follows: In terms of syllable count, a reduction in TT syllable count was observed with high occurrences in Korean-Japanese translation, whereas the same strategy was used only in very few cases in Japanese-Korean translation. Rhyme addition was twice as high in Japanese-Korean translation compared to Korean-Japanese translation, and the amount of rhyme increased more significantly in Japanese-Korean translation than in the translation in the opposite direction. With regard to meaning, meaning deviation was found with higher rates in Korean-Japanese translation. In some cases, Korean lyrics in ST were left untranslated in TT in Korean-Japanese translation, but no attempt was found to retain the Japanese lyrics in TT in Japanese-Korean translation. In addition, high rates of omission and generalization but low rates of addition and specification were found in Korean-Japanese translation. On the other hand, high rates of addition and low rates of omission and generalization were revealed in Japanese-Korean translation. It was also found out that while replaced songs were greater in number in Korean-Japanese translation than in Japanese-Korean translation, translated songs prevailed in Japanese-Korean translation, based on the operational definitions. The implications of the study are as follows. First, patterns of K-pop singable translation were identified in terms of syllable count, rhymes and meaning through qualitative and quantitative analyses. Second, this study also sheds light on the aspects of K-pop singable translation not only from a perspective of semantic value, but also from one of musical features, i.e. syllable count and rhymes. Third, in comparison with the outcomes of the previous research literature focusing on operas and musicals, this study provides insight into distinct differences presented by K-pop singable translation stemming from its genre characteristics. Finally, operationally defining the three different variations proposed by previous studies - translations, adaptation and replacement texts – categorized by a degree of semantic fidelity, this paper looked into the translation trends between Korean-Japanese translation and Japanese-Korean translation. However, this study is not without limitations; extended in-depth research was not conducted to investigate the correlations among syllable count, rhymes and meaning by linking the components, and circumstantial factors that could affect translation strategy and the impact of fandom on singable translation were not fully taken into account.

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