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The following summary is from an analysis of time trends of contraceptive practice with Korean women(774 women were interviewed in 1965, 914 in 1966, and 1016 in 1967). 1. Time trends in contraceptive practice: The percent of women who have ever practiced contraception has risen steadily since 1965, from 22.4% to 27.2% to 28.0% among all eligible women in 1965, 1966 and 1967 respectively. 2. Trends in contraceptive practiced by age: The highest level of contraception occurs in the 35-39 age group in 1966 and 1967 but in the 40-44 age group in 1965. The pattern in toward younger women. 3. Trends in contraceptive practice by level of education: The higher their level of education, the more likely women are to practice contraception is both urban and rural areas. At all levels of education, however, practice in rural areas has become as high as in urban areas. 4. Trends in contraceptive practice by religionr: Christian, Buddhist and non-religious women have gradually increased contraceptive practice, while Catholics and Confucians have grdually declined in their practice ratios. Religion itself may probably be a very minor factor in substantiating behavioral changes. 5. Trends in contraceptive practice by number of living children: The mean of living children among "ever-practicing" women was 4.0,4.2 and 4.1 in 1965, 1966 and 1967 respectively, while the mean of number of living children among all respondents was 3.5, 3.4 and 3.4 in these years. Thus practicers remain the more fertile women. 6. Trends in contraceptive practice by age at first marriage: The higher the age at first marriage, the lower the practice ratio: with women marrieed under age 20 showing the highest ratio of practice. This is probably due to the fact that the age of marriage has been increasing recently, with women married at above age 20 still too young to practice much family planning. 7. Trends in contraceptive practice by duration of marriage: Practice ratios increase with duration of marriage since they increase high with parity. More women have practiced in urban areas where marriage duration was short. 8. Trends in contraceptive practice by frequency of induced abortion: The mean frequency of induced abortion for "everpracticing" woman was 0.6 and 0.7 in 1965, 1966 and 1967 respectively. On the other hand, all respondents showed rates of 0.2 and 0.3. 9. Trends in contraceptive practice by ideal family size: The mean ideal family size for ever-practicing women was 3.8 through 1967: while 3.9 was the mean among all respondents. 10. Trends in contraceptive practice by registration status: Among those currently practing women, registered women were 63.8%, 67.6%, 67.2% in 1965, 1966 and 1967 respectively.
A school building complex means building both the learning spaces of students and convenience space of community within school lands. The projects have has a positive effect on saving the national budget as well as expanding the learning spaces. The absence of standard agreement contracted through discussion of participants, however, has made many problems in the operated projects. Through analysis on the previous researches and conference, the paper finds main problems discussed in the operating step. And, the feasibility study is carried out in order to analyze the appropriateness of on the existing agreements on the problems. Finally, the paper presents the standard agreement for the school building complex projects. The practitioners can prevent the existing problems from new projects through using the proposed agreement. Furthermore, it is expected that the school building complex projects will be activated.
Glycine betaine (GB) is one of the compatiblesolutes that accumulate in the chloroplasts of certain halotolerantplants under salt or cold stress. The codA gene for cholineoxidase, the enzyme that converts choline into GB, has beencloned from a soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis. Wegenerated transgenic sweetpotato plants [Ipomoea batatas(L.) Lam] expressing codA gene in chloroplasts under thecontrol of the SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SC plants)and evaluated SC plants under oxidative and drought stresses. SC plants showed enhanced tolerance to methyl viologen(MV)-mediated oxidative stress and drought stress due toinduced expression of codA. At 5 μM of MV treatment, allSC plants showed enhanced tolerance to MV-mediated oxidativestress through maintaining low ion leakage and increasedGB levels compared to wild type plants. When plants weresubjected to drought conditions, SC plants showed enhancedtolerance to drought stress through maintaining high relativewater contents and increased codA expression compared to wild type plants. These results suggest that the SC plantsgenerated in this study will be useful for enhanced biomassproduction on global marginal lands.
KT starts MMS(Multimedia Messaging System) service based on wired BcN(Broadband Convergence Network) telephone on August, 2008. BcN telephones have various service functions, and MMS service has been serviced for years. However, we should check KT MMS service system. KT MMS service is based on a PS(presence server), so KT MMS system sends a MMS message to the most convenience terminal for each receiver. Most other current MMS system send MMS message to a terminal which the sender set directly. However KT MMS system decides called party terminal based on the receiver’s situation.
독립성분분석(ICA)은 미지의 신호원으로부터 측정된 신호를 분리하기 위한 비감독화 선형 변환법으로 알려져있다. 본 논문의 목표는 ICA기법에 기초한 응답기반 시스템 식별과 현장 구조물에 적용 가능성을 확인하는 것이다. 구조물에 태풍이 접근할 때 구조물의 상부에 설치된 3개의 가속도계로부터 가속도 응답을 직접적으로 측정된다. 측정된 가속도 응답은 구조물의 모드와 밀접히 관련되어 병진-비틀림이 연계되어 나타난다. 모드분리를 위한 성능지수로서 첨도를 최소화하기위해 ICA기법을 적용하여, 병진-비틀림이 연계된 모드 응답은 밀접하게 인접한 모드일지라도 정확하게 분리되고 변환행렬에 의해 자동적으로 모드 형상은 결정되어지는 것을 확인하였다. 본 연구 결과로부터 고유진동수와 같은 모드 특성은 힐버트 변환에서 얻은 각 모드의 시변 고유진동수의 누적 분포 함수로부터 추계학적으로 추정할 수 있다. 본 논문의 결과는 새롭게 제안된 기법이 기존의 응답기반 시스템 식별보다 구조물의 응답에 매우 강력하게 적용되는 것을 보여준다.