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A survey of weed occurrence was conducted to identify problematic weed species in a horticultural crop field to get basic information for effective weed control. Surveys of weed species occurring in horticultural crop fields (garlic, onion, red pepper and Chinese cabbage) were conducted in Chungnam province of Korea from April to October in 2014. A total of 516 sites of the 17 regions were identified as having 114 weed species belonging to 32 families. The most dominant weed species in the horticultural crop fields were Chenopodium album var. centrorubrum (8.83%), followed by Digitaria ciliaris (5.71%), Conyza canadensis (5.46%) and Capsella bursa-pastoris (4.67%). Specifically, as a result of this study, the occurrence of 35 species of exotic weeds, such as Chenopodium album and Taraxacum officinale, were confirmed. Almost 68% of the investigation sites was determined under dominance value 1 (range of cover < 10; numerous individuals) by Braun-Branquet cover-abundance scale, indicating a proper weed control in horticultural crop field. As a result of scientific and technological advances, an improved cultivation method is changing the weed occurrence in agricultural land. Additional research needs to be undertaken for the development of weed control methods through such periodic monitoring of occurrence of weeds.
Recording and keeping account of the usage of cloud resources in a trustworthy way are vital requirement for widespread cloud deployment and availability. To provide a trustworthiness of cloud service contracts, we identified that the frequent cryptographic operations for the trustworthy contracts lead to excessive computations and a bottleneck of contract transactions. As a remedy for these limitations, we propose a trustworthy contract system for cloud computing environment. The system, which introduces the concept of a Cloud Notary Authority (CNA) for the supervision of contract, makes contract more objective and acceptable to users and cloud service providers. CNA generates trustworthy binding information that can be used to resolve future disputes between a user and a cloud service provider. Because our contract system drastically minimizes the asymmetric key operations of cloud users and service providers, it provides a level of security that is identical to that of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and it minimizes the latency of contract transactions. This work was undertaken on a real cloud computing service called iCubeCloud.
일반 사용자를 위한 클라우드 컴퓨팅 서비스 제공 및 클라우드 컴퓨팅의 활성화를 위해 선행되어야 할 과제 중 하나는 상호 검증이 가능한 과금 시스템의 구축이다. 본 논문에서는 PKI기반 상호 검증이 가능한 과금 시스템을 디자인 하고 구현하였다. PKI기반 과금 시스템의 구축으로 사용자의 클라우드 자원 사용기록이 PKI 기반 디지털 서명과 함께 기록이 되므로 상호 검증이 가능하다는 장점이 있지만 빈번한 PKI 개인키 연산은 과금 시스템 및 사용자 단에 상당한 오버헤드로 작용된다. 이와 같은 문제점을 해결하기 위하여 “Cloud-Notary-Authority”이라는 새로운 개념을 도입하여, PKI에서 제공하는 보안성능을 그대로 유지시켜 클라우드 컴퓨팅 과금 시스템에 대한 디지털 서명 및 부인방지 기능을 제공을 함과 동시에 오버헤드가 심한 보안 연산을 오프로딩 시켜 과금 시스템에 대한 오버헤드를 최소화 시키게 된다. 본 시스템은 KAIST 클라우드 테스트베드에 실질적으로 적용하여 실험을 수행하였으며, 일반 PKI 기반 과금 시스템에 비하여 약 3배 정도의 성능 향상이 있다.
As advances are made in hardware/software technology, the wearable computing systems are becoming widespread and comes with interesting technology and business applications issues. This creates a demand for more practical wearable computing platform that consider not only aesthetic appearance but also usability. In this paper, we presents a brief survey on wearable computing technologies and its applications, by identifying a variety of fundamental technologies and applications. To achieve it, we investigate the existing technologies and relevant research results in four major areas: platform, user interface, and applications.
Body means 1)the whole structure and substance of a man, animal, or plant 2) the trunk or torso of a man or animal 3) part of garment that covers the trunk 4) the fresh or material substance, as opposed to the spirit. Human body could be distinguished as fresh and spirit. Body has the meaning of physicality. Physical means the bodily and constitution, but in the meaning of constitution there is the content of spirituality. Physicality means the appearing or arising of trace or image or nuance of body. The paintings which are using bodies are 1) directly draw bodies 2) twisting or transformation or nuance of the body and highly upgrade the physical emotion or fantastic bodily nuance 3) directly rubbing artist's body on the surface of painting with pigments to elect tactile specification. These physical art have appeared broadly by various artists, mainly with the social aspects of sex, drug, psycho sexual issues. In case of Joel peter Whitkin, the reason of strong physicality in the art is from the mind of the rejection and resistance of real world which is targeting top, perfect and beauty. Further explanation, being the world which is separated top and under, men and women, beauty and ugly; further in the situation, the hierarchy, terror and pressure began and many difficult problems has derived. The contents of attacking feminists's art works are very obscene to reveal female and male's phallus strongly. Sometime, it is strongly related in the political issues. The physical paintings have strong meanings in the action by hands and feet. It supports that it could reveal the humanity with smell, breath, and traces of bodies. In the bodies, the origin of life begins which gives human life by blood lines and water. Sometime, the physical paintings are made by the blood and urine to stick the physicality for special nuance. The physical paintings are made by the image of penis and clitoris which are related in the image of urinating, ejaculation and sometime is symbolized as pens and candles to drop liquid. The selected painters who are related in physical painting are Jackson Pollock, Andrea Serano, Eve Klein, Francis Bacon, Francesco Clemente, Lichard Long, Jakes & Dinos Chapman, Anselm Kiefer, Kiki Smith and Park, Ki Woong. Francis Bacon's style is destructive in representing human shapes which give us special message about the unbearable activity of men politician, high brain, wealthy and religious people. Francesco Clemente's method is to use throat, ear hole, mouse, clitoris, belly nostrils and every holes of body to transmute human physical body. Lichard Long uses directly his body in drawing the surface of painting by using liquid of mud Jakes & Dinos Chapman destroys or transforms the bodies of human. It sometime appears wrong location of the bodies that the penis and vulva is in between human faces or nose of women, Anselm Kiefer uses human hair for representing the human decaying martyrs, and indirectly using straw, he gives special ritual action to repent the Nazi's fault. From 2002 to 2003, Park KI Woong used women womb images to intermingle the smoke shape of <9.11 terror, 2001> in New York to reveal the painful situation of the time(*).
In an attempt to achieve an efficient and secure communication in ubiquitous computing environment, we found that a proper selection of compression and encryption algorithms is a challenging issue. Compression can be beneficial to reduce the number of bits transmitted. If the energy required to compress data is less than the energy required to send it, there is a net energy savings and an increase in battery life for portable computers. On the other hand, encryption is essential operations to provide a secure communication. However, the mobile devices, usually with very limited resources and battery power, are subject to the problem of energy consumption due to compression and encryption algorithms. They consume a significant amount of computing resources such as CPU time, memory, and battery power. In this paper, we present the results of DEVS-based evaluation with symmetric key algorithms (AES, RC4) and compression algorithms (Zlib, LZO, Bzip) that are commonly suggested in terms of processing time and consumed energy.