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        • 不良觀光慰樂地區 整備方針에 關한 硏究

          柳南馨 진주산업대학교 1983 論文集 Vol.21 No.-

          The results a study on the criteria about replanning of inferior leisure and recreation area is as follows. First, the character of leisure and recreation area should be mediated by the character of commuinity and resources. The size of recreation facility should be determined the number of user which is presumed by the relation between replanning area and adjacent leisure and recreation area. Second, the subject and method on the developement or management for the leisure and recreation area is determened under the protection of the existing investor For the commercialism and public service of leisure and recreation enterprise, the third sector­ajoint of public and private sector­should be estabilished. Third, environmental regulation should be performed by the committee of consideration The contents of environmental regulation should be comprise the regulation on the landuse, architecture, outdoor facility and public facility. Environmental regulation should be performed by the means­offer of special benefits. Fourth, for the maintenance of highservice level of the facility, continuous invest to the enlargement and creation of facility which satisfies the need of new recreation should be performed. Fifth, management should be performed by the nonprofit coorporation or private enterprise, maintenance should be performed by the public organization.

        • KCI등재

          투.보수성 시멘트 콘크리트 포장의 열물성 및 수분보유특성이 표면온도에 미치는 영향

          류남형,유병림,Ryu,Nam-Hyang,Yoo,Byung-Rim 한국조경학회 2006 韓國造景學會誌 Vol.34 No.1

          This study was undertaken to analyze the effects of pavement thermal properties and water retention characteristics on the surface temperature of the gray permeable cement concrete pavement during the summer. Following is a summary of major results. 1) The hourly surface temperature of pavement could be well predicted with a heat transfer model program that incorporated the input data of major meteorological variables including solar radiation, atmospheric temperature, dew point, wind velocity, cloudiness and the evaporation rate of the pavements predicted by the time domain reflectometry (TDR) method. 2) When the albedo was changed to 0.5 from an arbitrary starting condition of 0.3, holding other variables constant, the peak surface temperature of the pavement dropped by 11.5%. When heat capacity was changed to $2.5\;kJm^{-3}K^{-1}\;from\;1.5\;kJm^{-3}K^{-1}$, surface temperature dropped by 8.0%. When daily evaporation was changed to 1 mm from 2 mm, temperature dropped by 5.7%. When heat conductivity was changed to $2.5\;Wm^{-1}K^{-1}\;from\;1.5\;Wm^{-1}K^{-1}$, the peak surface temperature of the pavement fell by 1.2%. The peak pavement surface temperature under the arbitrary basic condition was $24.46^{\circ}C$ (12 a.m.). 3) It accordingly became evident that the pavement surface temperature can be most effectively lowered by using materials with a high albedo, a high heat capacity or a high evaporation at the pavement surface. The glare situation, however, is intensified by raising of the albedo, moreover if reflected light is absorbed into surrounding physical masses, it is changed into heat. It accordingly became evident that raising the heat capacity and the evaporative capacity may be the moot acceptable measures to improve the thermal characteristics of the pavement. 4) The sensitivity of the surface temperature to major meteorological variables was as follows. When the daily average temperature changed to $0^{\circ}C\;from\;15^{\circ}C$, holding all other variables constant, the peak surface temperature of the pavement decreased by 56.1 %. When the global solar radiation changed to $200\;Wm^{-2}\;from\;600\;Wm^{-2}$, the temperature of the pavement decreased by 23.4%. When the wind velocity changed to $8\;ms^{-1}\;from\;4\;ms^{-1}$, the temperature decreased by 1.4%. When the cloudiness level changed to 1.0 from 0.5, the peak surface temperature decreased by 0.7%. The peak pavement surface temperature under the arbitrary basic conditions was $24.46^{\circ}C$ (12 a.m.)

        • 連續景觀의 記號化에 관한 硏究 : 飢存事例를 中心으로 Based on the Preceding Studies

          柳南馨,具泰益 진주산업대학교 1989 論文集 Vol.27 No.-

          This study is purposed to arrange the notation techniques of sequential landscapes and to try the applicability of them. First, this study is to arrange the characteristics, the fortes and foibles of existing techniques based on the review of preceding studies. Later, the following studies will be carried out to verify the applicability of notation techniques based on the analysis and design proposal of real landscape. The review of preceding studies tells us that 1) the preceding studies should be rearranged by similar sites with the view of landscape manipulation, 2) the notation techniques should be recognized not as a solvent, but as a supplement of design communication problems, 3) the notation of landscapes should be purposed on the application of landscape planning and design, not on the analysis of landscapes themselves, 4) the notation of landscapes should be based not only the static images of physical landscapes but also on the holistic experiences of the observers.

        • 조경전산 데이터의 관리체계 구축을 위한 기초연구 : with ACAD DXF Data

          류남형,윤인규 진주산업대학교 1995 論文集 Vol.34 No.-

          As the result of analysis on practical design process, the use system of layers divided into map-management and data-management with consideration to map' types and characters of map's element. In principle, names of layer for map-management are made up of 4 letter. The inital letter of the name is the code of use, and the rest is the map's element. The layer' name for layer-management consist of 5 letter. The inital letter is the code of use, and the rest is the code of facilities and tree. The layers for a map-management are systematically named, after they are divided into temporary lines, basic facilities, symbols, and a case in data-management, landscape construction, facilities, plant. In the latter case, we use a system of layer name as calculating their quantity and standard with ACAD DXF and block files. Calculating process is 1) extracting a sub-layer with the initial letter of layer name 2) deciding on name and order of map element a basis on sub-layer one 3) calculating their quantity and standard with ACAD DXF system 4) line drawing on picked point.

        • KCI우수등재

          투$\cdot$보수성 시멘트 콘크리트 포장의 열환경 특성( I )

          류남형,유병림,Ryu,Nam-Hyong,Yoo,Byung-Rim 한국조경학회 2005 韓國造景學會誌 Vol.32 No.6

          This study was undertaken to measure and analyze the thermal environment characteristics of the grey permeable cement concrete pavement(GPCCP), the permeable cement concrete brick pavement(PCCBP) compared with impermeable cement concrete pavement(ICCP) and bare soil(BS) under the summer outdoor environment. Following is a summary of major results. 1) The peak surface temperature was greatest in the GPCCP$(54.2^{\circ}C)$ followed by ICCP$(47.2^{\circ}C)$ rut August 2, 2002, the hottest day$(35.3^{\circ}C\;of\;highest\;temperature)$ during the experiment; peak temperature in the ICCP and BS were $45.5^{\circ}C)$ and $45.3^{\circ}C)$ respectively. 2) Analysis of heat budget of the pavements has revealed that the heat environment was worse in the GPCCP than that in the ICCP and that this was mainly due to a low albedo in the former(0.2) relative to that of the latter(0.4). 3) Analysis of heat budget of the pavements has revealed that the heat environment was worse in the GPCCP than that in the PCCBP, BS and that this was mainly due to a decreased latent heat resulting from a time dependent decreasing impact of rainfall. 4) It is necessary to make cool pavements to further studies on light-colored surface materials for attaining high albdo and construction methods which can enhance the latent heat through the continuous evaporation from pavements surface. 5) Vertical arrangement of pavement layers has not been considered in the present study, which has been focuses on the heat characteristics of the surface layer materials. Accordingly, future studies will have to be empasized on pavement methods including the vertical arrangement of the pavement layers.

        • 街路樹가 있는 街路景觀의 視覺的 選好度에 關한 硏究 : 步道幅과 植栽間隔을 中心으로 Based on the Sidewalk Width and Planting Interval

          柳南馨,姜喆基 진주산업대학교 1986 論文集 Vol.24 No.-

          本 硏究는 街路樹가 있는 街路景觀의 視覺的 選好度를 밝혀내기 위해 步道幅과 植栽間隔을 달리한 18枚의 天然色合成슬라이드사진을 몽타쥬技法으로 作成하고 각 슬라이드에 대해 5段階 絶對評價에 의해 選好値를 調査하여 選好値와 道路.幅植栽間隔과의 關係를 밝힌 것이다. 그 結果를 要約하면 다음과 같다. 1) 街路樹에 關해서 評價性 尺度를 피크를 주는 最適植栽間隔은 存在한다. 2) 樹高 6m, 地下高 2.5m, 樹冠幅 8m인 은행나무인 경우 步道幅 4, 6, 8m에 있어 綜合的으로 볼 때 最適植栽間隔은 11m 前後이다. 3) 步道幅과 植栽間隔에 따른 選好値(快適性, 安定性, 統一性)는 步道幅 (+)적인 相關關係에 있다. 4) 步道幅에 따른 最適植栽間隔은 步道幅 4, 6, 8m에 있어 各各 10.8m, 11.2m, 11.4m 前後이다. 5) 開放性은 步道幅, 植栽間隔과 (+)적인 相關關係에 있으며, 立體性은 步道幅과 (-)적인 相關關係에 있다. 단 이번 物理量 統制評價結果는 特定 背景. 街路樹의 天然色合成슬라이드寫眞이라는 限定된 條件下의 것에서 얻어진 最適値 등의 數値 白體는 參考정도로 될 수 있으며, 本 硏究는 都市道路景觀이라는 복잡한 視對象의 評價를 物理量으로 說明하는 方向의 設定에 도움을 줄 수 있으리라 생각되나 現實空間에서 對應시키기 위해서는 樹種, 樹高, 地下高, 樹冠幅, 樹型에 따른 選好가 綜合的으로 硏究되어야 할 것이다. This study is purposed to investigate the role of physical factor-sidewalk width and planting interval-on the visual preference to the street-vistas with roadside trees, with using 18 colour photomontage slidefilms of street-vistas differentiated in sidewalk width and planting interval by psychological evaluation of 5 interval scale. The results were as follows. 1) The best interval of planting exists on "evaluation" scale. 2) The best interval of planting to the side walk width : 4, 6, 8m is about 11m with using Ginko biloba: H6×W8× CL2.5m. 3) The visual preference to the sidewalk width and planting interval in comfort, stability, unity, has positive correlation with side walk width. 4) The best interval of planting to each sidewalk width : 4, 6, 8m, is about 10.8, 11.2, 11.4m. 5) Openness has positive correlation with sidewalk width and planting interval, solidity has negative correlation with sidewalk width.

        • KCI등재

          여름철 낮 그늘시렁의 차양이 온열쾌적 지표에 미치는 영향

          류남형,이춘석,Ryu,,Nam-Hyong,Lee,,Chun-Seok 한국조경학회 2013 韓國造景學會誌 Vol.41 No.6

          본 연구는 여름철 낮 그늘시렁의 차양이 온열쾌적 지표에 미치는 영향을 파악하고자 수행하였다. 이를 위해 여름철 차양 및 겨울철 방풍을 고려하여 갈대발로 천개면 등을 차폐한 3가지 유형의 그늘시렁(가로 4m${\times}$세로 4m${\times}$높이 2.7m) I(천개면 차폐) II(천개면, 서향면 차폐) III(천개면, 서향면, 북향면 차폐)을 4층 옥상에 구축하였다. 그리고 1차 실험은 2013년 8월 14일부터 16일까지 대조구, 그늘시렁 I, III을 대상으로, 2차 실험은 2013년 8월 26일부터 28일까지 대조구, 그늘시렁 I, II를 대상으로 기상변수(기온, 습도, 복사, 풍속)를 측정하였다. 그늘시렁의 차양이 인체가 흡수하는 복사환경과 $T_{mrt}$ 및 $SET^*$에 미치는 영향은 다음과 같다. 그늘시렁의 차양으로 인해 인체가 흡수한 복사량의 저감은 단파복사가 장파복사에 비해 훨씬 크게 나타났다. 대조구 대비 인체가 흡수한 단파복사량 차이의 최댓값 ${\Delta}K_{abs,max}$는 그늘시렁 I과 III에서는 $-119W/m^2$와 $-158W/m^2$였으며, 그늘시렁 I과 II에서는 $-145W/m^2$와 $-159W/m^2$였다. 대조구 대비 인체가 흡수한 장파복사량의 차이의 최댓값 ${\Delta}L_{abs,max}$는 그늘시렁 I과 III에서는 $-15W/m^2$와 $-17W/m^2$였으며, 그늘시렁 I과 II에서는 $-8W/m^2$와 $-7W/m^2$였다. 그늘시렁의 차양에 의해 인체가 흡수한 $T_{mrt}$와 $SET^*$ 값도 낮아졌다. $T_{mrt}$는 1차 실험에서는 그늘시렁 I과 III에서 각각 최대 $16.0^{\circ}C$와 $21.4^{\circ}C$, 그리고 2차 실험에서는 그늘시렁 I과 II에서 각각 최대 $18.8^{\circ}C$와 $20.8^{\circ}C$ 저감되었다. $SET^*$는 1차 실험에서는 그늘시렁 I과 III에서 각각 최대 $2.9^{\circ}C$와 $2.6^{\circ}C$ 그리고 2차 실험에서는 그늘시렁 I과 II에서 각각 최대 $3.5^{\circ}C$와 $2.6^{\circ}C$ 저감되었다. 대조구 $SET^*$ 대비 그늘시렁 II, III의 $SET^*$ 저감효율은 그늘시렁 I에 비해 낮게 나타났는데, 이는 풍속의 차이 때문이었다. 따라서 그늘시렁 수직면의 차폐시에는 차양 못지않게 통풍을 고려하는 것이 필수적이라 생각된다. 대조구의 3일간 평균 최고기온이 $37.5^{\circ}C$였던 1차 실험기간 결과에서는 $SET^*$ 값이 하루 중 대부분 시간대에서 온열 쾌적대 및 수용대의 상한 값인 $28.7^{\circ}C$와 $30.4^{\circ}C$를 초과하였다. 반면에 대조구의 3일간 평균 최고기온이 $34.4^{\circ}C$였던 2차 실험결과, $SET^*$ 값이 그늘시렁 I에서는 18~12시와 오후 14~18시, 그늘시렁 II는 15~18시에만 온열 쾌적대에 드는 것으로 나타났다. 반면에 그늘시렁 I, II에서 $SET^*$ 값은 하루 중 대부분 시간대에서 온열 수용대에 드는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 혹서기에 그늘시렁의 온열쾌적성을 확보하기 위해서는 갈대발 등에 의한 차양뿐만 아니라, 덩굴식물이나 녹음수에 의한 차양을 도입하는 방안을 강구하여야 할 것이다. 그리고 그늘시렁의 차양효과를 평가하는 지표로서 $T_{mrt}$와 $SET^*$는 실효성이 있었다고 판단되며, 향후 옥외 조경공간의 온열환경 평가 지표로서 활용이 기대된다. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of pergola's shading on the thermal comfort index in the summer. The 3 type of pergolas($4m{\times}4m{\times}h2.7m$) which were screened overhead(I)/overhead west(II)/overhead west north(III) plane with reed blind for summer shading and winter wind break, were constructed on the 4th floor rooftop. Thereafter the meteorological variables(air temperature, humidity, radiation, and wind speed) of pergola I, III and rooftop were measured from 14 to 16 August 2013(1st experiment), those of pergola I, II and rooftop were measured from 26 to 28 August 2013(2nd experiment). The effects of pergola's shading on the radiation environment and mean radiant temperature($T_{mrt}$), standard effective temperature($SET^*$) were as follows. The maximum 1 h mean values of differences ${\Delta}$ of the sums of shortwave radiant flux densities absorbed by the human body (${\Delta}K_{abs,max}$) between pergola I, III and nearby sunny rooftop were $-119W/m^2$, $-158W/m^2$, those between pergola I, II and rooftop were $-145W/m^2$, $-159W/m^2$. The maximum 1 h mean values of differences ${\Delta}$ of the sums of long wave radiant flux densities absorbed by the human body (${\Delta}L_{abs,max}$) between pergola I, III and nearby sunny rooftop, were $-15W/m^2$, $-17W/m^2$, those between pergola I, II and nearby rooftop, were $-8W/m^2$, $-7W/m^2$. The response of the direction dependent long wave radiant flux densities $L_1$ on the pergola's shading turned out to be distinctly weaker as compared to shortwave radiant flux densities $K_1$. The pergola's shading leads to a lowering of $T_{mrt}$ and $SET^*$. The peak values of $T_{mrt}$ absorbed by the human body were decreased $16^{\circ}C$ and $21.4^{\circ}C$ under pergola I and III as compared to that of nearby rooftop in the 1st experiment. Those were decreased $18.8^{\circ}C$ and $20.8^{\circ}C$ under pergola I and II as compared to that of nearby rooftop in the 2nd experiment. The peak values of $SET^*$ absorbed by the human body were decreased $2.9^{\circ}C$ and $2.6^{\circ}C$ under pergola I and III as compared to that of nearby rooftop in the 1st experiment. Those were decreased $3.5^{\circ}C$ and $2.6^{\circ}C$ under pergola I and II as compared to that of nearby rooftop in the 2nd experiment. The relative $SET^*$ decrease in pergola II, III compared to nearby sunny rooftop $SET^*$ were lower than that in pergola I, revealing the influence of the wind speed. Therefore it is essential to design pergola to maximize wind speed and minimize solar radiation to achieve comfort in the hot summer. The $SET^*$ under pergola I, III were exceeded $28.7^{\circ}C$ and $30.4^{\circ}C$ which were the upper limit of thermal comfort and tolerable zone during all most daytimes in the 1st experiment(maximum air temperature $37.5^{\circ}C$). The $SET^*$ under pergola I was exceeded $28.7^{\circ}C$ which was the upper limit of thermal comfort zone at 13h, that under pergola II was exceeded $28.7^{\circ}C$ from 8h to 14h, meanwhile the $SET^*$ under pergola I, II were within thermal tolerable zone during most daytimes in the 2nd experiment(maximum air temperature $34.4^{\circ}C$). Therefore to ensure the thermal comfort of pergola for summer hottest days, pergola should be shaded with not only reed blind but also climbing and shade plants. $T_{mrt}$ and $SET^*$ were suitable index for the evaluation of pergola's shading effects and outdoors.

        • KCI우수등재

          그늘시렁 Wisteria floribunda의 엽면적지수가 온열환경에 미치는 영향

          류남형,이춘석 한국조경학회 2017 韓國造景學會誌 Vol.45 No.6

          This study was to investigate the user's thermal environments under the pergola(L 7,200×W 4,200×H 2,700mn) covered with Wisteria floribunda(Willd.) DC. according to the variation of leaf area index(LAI). We carried out detailed measurements with two human-biometeorological stations on a popular square Jinju, Korea(N35°10'59.8", E 128°05'32.0", elevation: 38m). One of the stations stood under a pergola, while the other in the sun. The measurement spots were instrumented with microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, shortwave and longwave radiation from the six cardinal directions at the height of 0.6m so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index(UTCI) from 9th April to 27th September 2017. The LAI was measured using the LAI-2200C Plant Canopy Analyzer. The analysis results of 18 day's 1 minute term human-biometeorological data absorbed by a man in sitting position from 10am to 4pm showed the following. During the whole observation period, daily average air temperatures under the pergola were respectively 0.7~2.3℃ lower compared with those in the sun, daily average wind speed and relative humidity under the pergola were respectively 0.17~0.38m/s and 0.4~3.1% higher compared with those in the sun. There was significant relationship in LAI, Julian day number and were expressed in the equation . The average Tmrt under the pergola were 11.9~25.4℃ lower and maximum △Tmrt under the pergola were 24.1~30.2℃ when compared with those in the sun. There was significant relationship in LAI, reduction ratio(%) of daily average Tmrt compared with those in the sun and was expressed in the equation . The average UTCI under the pergola were 4.1~8.3℃ lower and maximum △UTCI under the pergola were 7.8~10.2℃ when compared with those in the sun. There was significant relationship in LAI, reduction ratio(%) of daily average UTCI compared with those in the sun and were expressed in the equation . The shading by the pergola covered with vines was very effective for reducing daytime UTCI absorbed by a man in sitting position at summer largely through a reduction in mean radiant temperature from sun protection, lowering thermal stress from very strong(UTCI>38℃) and strong(UTCI>32℃) down to strong(UTCI>32℃) and moderate(UTCI>26℃). Therefore the pergola covered with vines used for shading outdoor spaces is essential to mitigate heat stress and can create better human thermal comfort especially in cities during summer. But the thermal environments under the pergola covered with vines during the heat wave supposed to user “very strong heat stress(UTCI>38℃)”. Therefore users must restrain themselves from outdoor activities during the heat waves. 본 연구는 등(Wisteria floribunda(Willd.) DC.)으로 피복된 그늘시렁(L 7,200×W 4,200×H 2,700mn)의 엽면적지수(LAI) 의 변동에 따른 온열환경을 규명하고자 한 것이다. 이를 위해 진주시내 광장(N35°10'59.8", E128°05'32.0", 표고: 38m)의 등 으로 피복된 그늘시렁 하부와 햇빛에 노출된 포장지를 대상으로 맑은 날 미기상을 측정하였다. 범용온열기후지수(UTCI)를 산정하기 위해 봄철과 여름철의 미기상환경으로서 지상 60cm 높이에서 기온, 풍속, 상대습도 그리고 6방향의 장파 및 단파 복사를 2017년 4월 9일부터 8월 27일까지 측정하였다. 또한, LAI는 LAI-2200C 수관분석기로 측정하였다. 18일간 오전 10시부터 오후 4시까지의 앉은 자세의 인체가 흡수한 매 1분 간격 인체-생기상학적 자료를 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 측정기간 동안 햇빛노출지에 비해 그늘시렁 하부의 일평균 기온은 0.7~2.3℃ 낮았으며, 일평균 풍속과 일평균 상대습도는 각각 0.17~0.38m/s와 0.4~3.1% 높았다. LAI와 쥴리안 데이 사이의 회귀식은 였다. 그늘시렁 하부의 일평균 평균복사온도(Tmrt) 값은 햇빛 노출지에 비해 각각 11.9~25.5℃로 낮았으며, 최대 평균복사온도 감소(△Tmrt)는 24.1~30.2℃였다. LAI의 변동에 따른 햇빛 노출지 대비 일평균 Tmrt 감소율(%) 사이의 회귀식은 였다. 그늘시렁 하부의 일평균 UTCI 값은 햇빛 노출지에 비해 각각 4.1~8.3℃로 낮았으며, 최대 범용온열기후지수 감소 값(△UTCI)는 7.8~10.2℃였다. LAI 의 변동에 따른 햇빛 노출지 대비 일평균 UTCI 감소율(%) 사이의 회귀식은 였다. 종합적으로 보면 여름철에 덩굴식물로 피복된 그늘시렁에 의한 녹음은 차양에 의한 Tmrt의 감소를 통해 낮 동안 UTCI를 감소시킴으로써 열스트레스를 매우 강한(UTCI>38℃) 또는 강한(UTCI>32℃) 단계에서 강한(UTCI>32℃) 또는 보통(UTCI>26℃) 단계로 낮추어 준다. 따라서 여름철 열스트레스를 완화하고 쾌적한 인체 온열쾌적성을 제공하기 위해서는 덩굴식물로 피복된 그늘시렁의 도입은 필수적이다. 하지만 폭염 시에는 덩굴식물로 피복된 그늘시렁 하부의 온열환경도 이용자들에게 매우 강한 열 스트레스(UTCI>38℃)를 주므로 노약자의 옥외활동은 자제시킬 필요가 있다고 판단된다.

        • KCI우수등재

          폭염 시 어린이공원의 온열환경

          류남형,이춘석,Ryu,,Nam-Hyong,Lee,,Chun-Seok 한국조경학회 2016 韓國造景學會誌 Vol.44 No.6

          This study was to investigate the user's thermal environments of the children's parks according to pavements and sunscreen types during periods of heat waves. The measurements were conducted at the sand pits, rubber chip pavement, shelters, and green shade ground of the two children's parks located in Jinju, Korea(Chilam: $N\;35^{\circ}11^{\prime}1.4{^{\prime}^{\prim}}$, $E\;128^{\circ}5^{\prime}31.7{^{\prime}^{\prime}}$, elevation 38m, Gaho: $N\;35^{\circ}09^{\prime}56.8{^{\prime}^{\prime}}$, $E\;128^{\circ}6^{\prime}41.1{^{\prime}^{\prime}}$, elevation 24m) over three days during 11-13, August, 2016. The highest ambient air temperatures at the Jinju Meteorological Office during the three measurement days were $35.9{\sim}36.8^{\circ}C$, which corresponded with the extremely hot weather. A series of experiments measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, black globe temperature, and long-wave and short-wave radiation of the six directions 0.6 m above ground level. The wet bulb globe temperature(WBGT) and the universal thermal climatic index(UTCI) were used to evaluate thermal stress. Surface temperature images of the play equipment were also taken using infrared thermography. Surface temperatures of the play equipment and grounds were used to evaluate burn risk through contact with playground materials. The results showed the following. The maximum air temperatures averaged over 1-hour period for three days were $36.6{\sim}39.4^{\circ}C$. The sun shades reduced those temperatures by up to $2.8^{\circ}C$(green shade) and $1.0^{\circ}C/2.3^{\circ}C$(shelters). The minimum relative humidity values averaged over 1-hour period for three days were 44~50%. The sun shades increased those humidity values by up to 6%(green shade) and 4%/6%(shelters). The risk of heat related illness at the measurement sites of the children's parks were extreme and high in the daytime hours. The maximum WBGT values averaged over a 30-minute period for three days were $31.2{\sim}33.6^{\circ}C$. The sun shades reduced those WBGT values by up to $2.4^{\circ}C$(green shade) and $0.5^{\circ}C/2.1^{\circ}C$(shelters) compared to sandpits, but would not block the risk of heat related illness in the daytime hours. The category of heat stress at the measurement sites of the children's parks were extreme and very strong in the daytime hours. The maximum UTCI values averaged over a 30-minute period for three days were $39.9{\sim}48.1^{\circ}C$. The sun shades reduced those UTCI values by up to $7.8^{\circ}C$(green shade) and $4.1^{\circ}C/8.2^{\circ}C$(shelters) compared to sandpits, but could not lower heat stress category from extreme and very strong to strong and moderate in the daytime hours. According to the burn threshold criteria when skin was in contact with playground materials, the maximum surface temperature of the stainless steels($70.8^{\circ}C$) surpassed three seconds $60^{\circ}C$ threshold for uncoated steel, that of the rubber chip($76.5^{\circ}C$) surpassed five seconds $74^{\circ}C$ threshold for the plastic, that of the plastic slide($68.5^{\circ}C$) and seats($71.0^{\circ}C$) surpassed the one min $60^{\circ}C$ threshold for plastic, respectively. The surface temperatures of shaded play equipment were lower approximately $20^{\circ}C$ than those of play equipment exposed to the sun. Therefore, sun shades can block the risk of burns in daytime hours. Because of the extreme and high risk of heat related illness and extreme and high heat stress at the children's parks during periods of heat waves, parents and administrators must protect children from the use of playgrounds. The risk of burn when contact with play equipments and grounds at the children's parks during periods of heat waves, was 본 연구는 폭염 시 어린이공원 내 포장 및 차양의 유형에 따른 온열환경을 규명하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 진주기상대에서 측정한 일 최고기온이 $35.9{\sim}36.8^{\circ}C$를 나타낸 2016년 8월 11일부터 8월 13일까지 3일간 진주시내 어린이공원 2곳(칠암어린이공원: $N\;35^{\circ}11^{\prime}1.4{^{\prime}^{\prim}}$, $E\;128^{\circ}531.7{^{\prime}^{\prime}}$, 표고: 38m; 가호제12어린이공원: $N\;35^{\circ}09^{\prime}56.8{^{\prime}^{\prime}}$, $E\;128^{\circ}6^{\prime}41.1{^{\prime}^{\prime}}$, 표고: 24m)의 모래밭, 고무칩포장지, 쉘터, 녹음지를 대상으로 미기상을 측정하였다. 미기상환경으로서 지상 60cm 높이에서 기온, 흑구온도, 상대습도, 풍속, 6방향의 장파 및 단파 복사를 측정하였고, 이를 바탕으로 열스트레스 지수인 WBGT와 UTCI를 산정 및 분석하였다. 또한 열화상카메라로 포장면과 놀이시설의 표면온도를 측정하였으며, 이를 바탕으로 단시간 피부접촉시 화상의 위험을 평가하였다. 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 어린이공원의 3일 시간 평균 최고 기온은 $36.6{\sim}39.4^{\circ}C$였으며, 모래밭에 비해 녹음에서 $2.8^{\circ}C$, 쉘터에서 $1.0^{\circ}C$ 및 $2.3^{\circ}C$ 낮게 나타났다. 시간 평균 최저 습도는 44~50%였으며, 모래밭이나 고무칩포장지에 비해 녹음에서 6%, 쉘터에서 4% 및 6% 높게 나타났다. 열사병위험지수 WBGT 값에 근거하면 폭염 시 어린이공원의 주간의 열사병 위험도는 높은 또는 극심한 정도로 나타났다. 3일 30분 평균 최고 WBGT 값은 $31.2{\sim}33.6^{\circ}C$였으며, 모래밭에 비해 녹음에서 $2.8^{\circ}C$, 쉘터에서 $2.3^{\circ}C$ 및 $1.0^{\circ}C$ 낮게 나타났으나, 차양에 의해서도 열사병 위험을 피할 수는 없었다. 체감더위지수 UTCI 값에 근거하면 폭염 시 어린이공원의 주간의 온열 스트레스의 범주는 매우 강한 또는 극심한 정도로 나타났다. 3일 30분 평균 최고 UTCI 값은 $39.9{\sim}48.1^{\circ}C$였으며, 모래밭에 비해 녹음에서 $7.8^{\circ}C$, 쉘터에서 $8.2^{\circ}C$ 및 $4.1^{\circ}C$ 낮게 나타났으나, 차양에 의해서도 극심한 또는 매우 강한 온열 스트레스를 강한 또는 적정한 온열 스트레스로 낮출 수는 없었다. 단시간 피부접촉에 의한 화상 온도 기준에 따르면, 놀이시설 및 포장면의 최고 표면온도가 스텐레스 스틸($70.8^{\circ}C$)은 무도장 철재 3초 $60^{\circ}C$, 고무칩포장($76.5^{\circ}C$)은 플라스틱 5초 $74^{\circ}C$, 청색 플라스틱 미끄럼판($68.5^{\circ}C$)과 앉음판($71.0^{\circ}C$)은 플라스틱 1분 $60^{\circ}C$ 기준을 초과한 것으로 나타났다. 하지만 그늘이 진 놀이시설의 표면온도는 햇빛에 노출된 놀이시설의 표면온도에 비해 $20^{\circ}C$ 내외로 낮게 나타나, 차양에 의해 화상의 위험을 현저하게 개선할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. 폭염 시에는 어린이공원의 온열환경은 어린이들에게 높거나 극심한 열사병 위험에 빠지게 하고, 매우 강한 또는 극심한 온열 스트레스를 주기 때문에 보호자나 관리자가 어린이들의 어린이공원 이용을 제한해야 한다. 그리고 폭염시에는 어린이공원의 포장면 또는 놀이시설에 의한 화상의 위험이 매우 높으므로 이용 시 주의를 해야 하며, 화상의 예방을 위해서는 차양시설을 적극적으로 도입해야 한다.

        • KCI등재

          여름철 공원 수림지와 잔디밭의 온열쾌적지수 개선 효과

          류남형,이춘석,Ryu,,Nam-Hyong,Lee,,Chun-Seok 한국조경학회 2014 韓國造景學會誌 Vol.42 No.6

          본 연구는 쾌적한 온열환경을 제공하는 공원을 계획하기 위한 방안을 모색하고자, 전형적인 녹지유형인 수림지와 잔디밭의 여름철 열환경을 측정 및 평가하였다. 이를 위해 함양 상림공원을 연구대상지로 하였으며, 대상지 내 녹지유형을 대표하는 수림지와 잔디밭 그리고 대조구로서 포장지에서 열환경을 조사하였다. 기상장비를 활용한 3일 동안(2014년 8월 21~23일, 29~30일)의 정점관측을 통해 열환경 변수인 기온, 상대습도, 풍속 그리고 6방향(동, 서, 남, 북, 하향, 상향) 장파 및 단파 복사를 측정하였다. 측정한 복사량을 근거로 6방향의 향별 가중치를 적용하여 인체가 흡수한 복사량을 구한 후 이를 평균복사온도로 환산하였다. 산정된 평균복사온도와 측정된 기온, 상대습도, 풍속을 바탕으로 PET는 Rayman 1.2, UTCI, OUT_SET$^*$는 UTCI Calculator와 Thermal Comfort Calculator of Richard DeDear로 산정한 후 수림지, 잔디밭 그리고 대조구의 온열쾌적성을 평가하였다. 열환경 및 온열쾌적지수의 평가 결과, 수림지는 포장지에 비해 주간(10:00~16:00)의 기온과 평균복사온도를 $5.9^{\circ}C/35^{\circ}C$ 낮추는 냉각효과를 나타냈으며, 상대적으로 낮은 풍속과 높은 상대습도를 나타냈음에도 불구하고, 온열쾌적지수 개선효과는 매우 크게 나타났다. 반면에 잔디밭은 포장지에 비해 주간(10:00~16:00)의 기온과 평균복사온도를 $0.9^{\circ}C/3^{\circ}C$ 낮추는 미미한 냉각효과를 나타냈으며, 잔디밭의 온열쾌적지수 개선효과는 크지 않은 것으로 나타났다. 한편, 야간(21:00~04:00)의 미기상 및 복사 환경은 일사 부재, 풍속 감속, 상대습도 증가로 인해 수림지, 잔디밭 및 포장지가 비슷하게 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 수림지의 차양 및 증발산 효과는 잔디밭의 증발산 효과에 비해 매우 크기 때문이라 판단되며, 공원의 온열쾌적성을 확보하기 위해서는 녹지의 면적보다 녹지의 용적에 주력해야 한다는 것을 시사하는 것이다. 본 연구는 수림지와 잔디밭에서 공원의 이용자가 체감하는 온열쾌적성을 정량적으로 평가하고, 수림지 및 잔디밭이 가진 온열쾌적지수 개선효과를 규명함으로써 향후 공원계획시 이용자를 고려한 쾌적한 온열환경을 조성하는데 기여할 수 있을 것이다. The purpose of this study was to evaluate human thermal comfort in summer by the type of greenery in parks and to explore planning solutions to supply a comfortable thermal environment in parks. The research was conducted in three different land cover types: a park with multi-wide-canopied trees(WOODLAND), park with grass(LAWN) and park with pavement(PAV) as reference sites in Hamyang-Gun SangrimPark. Field measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity, short-wave and long-wave radiation from six directions(east, west, north, south, upward and downward) were carried out in the summer of 2014(August 21-23 and 29-30). Mean Radiant Temperature($T_{mrt}$) absorbed by a human-biometeorological reference person was estimated from integral radiation and the calculation of angular factors. The thermal comfort index PET was calculated by Rayman software, UTCI, OUT_SET$^*$ were calculated using the UTCI Calculator and the Thermal Comfort Calculator of Richard DeDear. The results showed that the WOODLAND has the maximum cooling effect during daytime, reduced air temperatures/$T_{mrt}$ by up to $5.9^{\circ}C/35^{\circ}C$ compared to PAV and lowered heat stress values despite increasing relative humidity values and decreasing wind velocity. While the LAWN had very slight cooling effects during daytime, reduced air temperatures/$T_{mrt}$ by up to $0.9^{\circ}C/3^{\circ}C$ compared to PAV, the improvement effects of the thermal comfort index was very slight. However, during nighttime the microclimatic and radiant conditions of WOODLAND, LAWN, and PAV were similar owing to the absence of solar radiation, reduction of wind velocity and an increase in relative humidity. Because the shading and evapotranspiration effects of the WOODLAND were much greater than the evapotranspiration effects of the LAWN, it can be said that the solutions for supplying comfortable thermal environment in parks are to amplify the green volumes rather than green areas. This study was undertaken to evaluate the human thermal comfort in summer of WOODLAND/LAWN parks and to determine the improvement effects of thermal comfort index. These results can contribute to the provision better thermal comfort for park users during park planning.

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