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      • KCI등재

        Regulation of Obesity and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases by Modulation of the Gut Microbiota Through Inflammasome; its Mechanism and Potential for Clinical Use

        남재환 대한미생물학회 2012 Journal of Bacteriology and Virology Vol.42 No.4

        The revelation that gut microbes are associated with the pathogenesis of human diseases such as obesity, colon cancer,inflammatory bowel disease and liver-related diseases has resulted in the role of gut microbes becoming a novel research topic in basic and clinical science. Recently, emphasis has been placed on the role of gut microbes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progressive form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Researchers have suggested that inflammasome deficiency-changed dysbiosis is associated with exacerbating NAFLD/NASH progression. This particular study also showed a direct 'gut-liver axis' regulated by modulation of gut microbiota. This paper (Nature 2012;482:179-185) was summarized herein and the potential clinical applications were discussed.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        국내에서 분리된 일본뇌염 바이러스의 Envelope Protein의 3차구조 분석

        남재환,채수림,김은정,윤경식,이호동,고현철,조해월 대한바이러스학회 1997 Journal of Bacteriology and Virology Vol.27 No.2

        Three dimensional structures of envelope protein from Korean isolates and Nakayama-NIH strain of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) were deduced by a computer program (HyperChem 4.0 Chemplus 1.0) based on the data of the three dimentional structure of Tick-borne encephalitis virus. In the three dimensional structure of envelope protein, neutralizing epitope and T-helper cell recognition site of C-terminal region of Korean isolates were structually similar to those of Nakayama-NIH but the N-terminal region was not. Korean JE isolates were compared with Nakayama-NIH strain by using cross-neutralization antibody test. Neutralizing activities of Korean isolates derived from guinea pigs were higher than those of Nakayama-NIH strain against Korean isolates, although the polyclonal antibody titers of Nakayama-NIH showed 1:160 to 1:640 against Korean isolates. According to the results from three dimentional structures and cross-neutralization analyses, the antigenic difference between Korean JE isolates and Nakayama- NIH strain may be dependent on structural difference of envelope protein.

      • KCI등재후보
      • KCI등재

        Coxsackievirus B3 H3와 10A1 감염에 의한 마우스 심장 내에서의 유전자 변이 관찰

        남재환(Jae-Hwan Nam),임병관(Byung-Kwan Lim),조영주(Young-Joo Cho),김대선(Dae-Sun Kim),김연정(Yeun-Jung Kim),정수영(Soo-Young Chung),지영미(Young-Mee Jee),전은석(Eun-Seok Jeon) 대한미생물학회 2006 Journal of Bacteriology and Virology Vol.36 No.2

        Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a non-enveloped virus that has a single-stranded RNA genome. CVB3 induces myocarditis, and ultimately, dilated cardiomyopathy. A myocarditis variant of CVB3 (CVB3 H3) and its antibody-escape mutant (CVB3 10A1) were studied previously; H3 was found to induce myocarditis and 10A1 was found to be attenuated in infected mice. Although amino acid residue 165, located in a puff region of VP2, was found to be altered (i.e., the H3 asparagine was altered to aspartate in 10A1), the detailed mechanism of attenuation was not clearly elucidated. Here, DNA microarray technology was used to monitor changes in mRNA levels of infected mouse hearts after CVB3 H3 and 10A1 infection. This tool was used to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of viral infection by understanding virus-host interactions. We identified several genes, including protein tyrosine kinases, Ddr2 and Ptk2, as well as Clqb and Crry, involved in complement reactions, which may be involved in these viral processes. Thus, gene profiling can provide an opportunity to understand host immune responses to viral infection for gene therapy and may contribute to the identification of the target gene that is modified during treatment of viral myocarditis.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        일본뇌염 백신 접종후 항 일본뇌염 항체의 생성율과 지속적인 면역반응에 대한 연구

        조해월,남재환,이호동,고현철,김정제,김은정,이연승,유정자,Cho, H.W.,Nam, J.H.,Lee, H.D.,Koh, H.C.,Kim, J.J.,Kim, E.J.,Lee, Y.S.,Lu, J.J. 대한소아감염학회 1997 Pediatric Infection and Vaccine Vol.4 No.1

        목 적 : 국내에서 사용되고 일본뇌염 바이러스 백신에 대한 야외 실험을 실시하여 국내 백신 제조에 사용되는 Nakayama-NIH주의 국내 접종자에 대한 항체 생성율 및 중화 항체의 지속율을 조사하고, 일본뇌염 접종 스케줄의 재조정 및 국내 면역 집단의 민감도 조사 등을 통하여 방역 대책의 기초 자료로 활용하고자 하였다. 방 법 : 일본뇌염 백신의 면역효과 및 항체지속 기간을 알아보고자 1994년부터 계속 사업으로 강화군에 소재하고 있는 K 초등학교 학생들을 대상으로 조사를 실시하였다. 대상자들의 혈액을 시기에 따라 채혈하여 hemagglutination inhibition test (HI) 및 plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)를 실시하여 항체가를 조사하였다. 결 과 : 총 조사 대상자 213명은 이미 기초 접종이 끝난 자들로서 HI 항체가는 '95년 4월 백신 면역전에 이미 63.4%가 1:10 이상의 항체가를 가지고 있었으며 중화항체가는 전원이 1:20 이상의 항체가를 가지고 있었다. '95년 백신 접종 후 12개월이 지난 1996년 4월까지 HI 항체가 1:20 이상이 55.7%이며, 중화항체가는 전원이 1:20 이상을 보유하고 있었다. 이들에게 1996년 4월에 재접종 후 6개월째에는 HI 항체가가 1:10 이상이 69.7%로 증가하였고 G.M.T값은 1:11.6에서 1:13.23, 중화 항체의 G.M.T는 1:275.7에서 1:348.1로 증가하였다. 결 론 :위의 실험 결과에 따르면 현재 국내에서 사용중인 불활화 일본뇌염 백신은 자연계 에서 일본뇌염 바이러스가 공격하는 $10^5$ $LD_{50}$를 막을 수 있는 중화항체가 1:20을 기본면역 1회로 1년 이상 유지하고 있었으며, 충분한 boosting 효과를 보이고 있었다. 따라서 일본뇌염 백신의 추가면역은 기본접종후 개인의 상태에 따라 2~3년 간격의 추가접종이 적절하다 고 생각된다. Purpose : Studies on the duration of immune response against Japanese encephalitis virus from recipients with JE vaccine (Nakayama-NIH strain) in Korea. Methods : To determinate the immune response and the duration of antibody against JE vaccine, 213 students were examined since 1994 using hemmaglutination inhibition test and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results : 24 months after the first vaccination, haemmaglutination inhibition and neutralizing antibody maintained from the recipients 63.4% (>1:20) and 100% (>1:20), respectively. In April 1996, one dose booster to the same recipients those who were vaccinated in 1994, the GMT antibody for HI and PRNT titer were both increased from 1:11.6 to 1:13.2 and 1:275.7 to 1:348.1, respectively, after 6 months booster (after 30 months from the initial vaccination). This results showed that the antibody from the active immunity could be maintained more than 12 months after the initial vaccination. On the basis of these results, inactivated killed JE vaccine (Nakayama-NIH strain) using for preventing against JE purpose seems to produce antibody enough to protect against JE at present. Conclusions : Along with the results of this study demonstrating duration of antibody, the active immunization could be maintained as long as by initial vaccination of 2 doses, a single dose of booster vaccination made during a period of 1 month to 12 months and the successive booster vaccination by 2 or 3 year intervals. However, the immunization schedule should be concerned with both epidemiology of disease and the immune response of vaccinated individuals.

      • KCI등재

        Is Obesity One of Physiological Factors which Exert Influenza Virus-induced Pathology and Vaccine Efficacy?

        조화정,남재환 대한미생물학회 2014 Journal of Bacteriology and Virology Vol.44 No.3

        Obesity has been considered a risk factor for infectious diseases including the influenza virus. Most epidemiologicalinvestigations indicated that obesity is connected to the severity of influenza, although there are some exceptions. Manystudies using obese humans and animal models showed that immune response was impaired in the obese group, increasingsusceptibility and severity of influenza virus. However, the exact mechanism by which obesity inhibits anti-viral immuneresponse remains unknown. This review discusses current studies about the properties of immune cells in obesity. Inobesity, the balance of adipokines is disrupted and the level of proinflammatory cytokine is increased compared withnon-obese control. Moreover, macrophages induced systemic inflammation by secreting cytokines such as TNF-α andIL-6, antigen presenting capacity of dendritic cells was diminished which affect T cell responses, and influenza-specificantibody production seems reduced and decreased even faster after vaccination in obese mouse. The number of circulatingT cells and proliferation of mitogen-stimulated T cells dropped and T cell memory was significantly low in influenzainfected obese mouse. Therefore, obesity may be one of factors for disease progression in influenza virus infection andvaccine efficacy.

      • KCI등재

        Infectobesity: a New Area for Microbiological and Virological Research

        나하나,남재환 대한미생물학회 2011 Journal of Bacteriology and Virology Vol.41 No.2

        Obesity is connected with numerous diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and nervous system dysfunctions. Obesity is affected by genetic, environmental, and cultural factors. However, numerous studies indicate that several pathogens might cause obesity. This review discusses recent data and the characteristics of pathogens that are implicated in obesity. In particular, human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) is the most clearly implicated virus in human obesity. It was recently shown that obese groups from the USA, Korea, and Italy have a higher prevalence of serum antibodies against Ad36. The mechanisms of Ad36-induced obesity remain unclear. However, glucose uptake and inflammation are possible mechanisms of Ad36-induced obesity. Overall, this new understanding of causes of obesity has developed into the concept of 'infectobesity' and the possibility of developing a 'vaccine' or 'therapeutic agents' for obesity.

      • KCI등재

        The Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow of Pathogen-induced Obesity

        나하나,남재환 대한비만학회 2013 The Korean journal of obesity Vol.22 No.4

        The American Medical Association officially declared obesity a disease. However, obesity is caused by genetic, social, environmental, and physiological factors. Among the many factors, infection by some pathogens has a significant impact on obesity and has been called infectobesity. In particular, human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) increases adipose tissue in animals and body fat in humans. Interestingly,Ad36-induced obesity paradoxically improves glycemic control by decreasing serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin, in contrast to high-fat diet obesity. Some epidemiological studies in Korea, the US, and Italy have demonstrated that Ad36 infection is associated with human obesity. The virus-infected subjects in those studies showed increased body fat and body mass index but decreased serum lipid and insulin levels. This phenomenon may be affected by inflammation, mitochondrial activity, and glucose uptake. Moreover the Ad36 gene, E4orf1, also increases adipogenesis and improves glucose uptake. Therefore, E4orf1 may be a template for a therapeutic agent to treat hyperinsulinemia. Thus, Ad36 and E4orf1 are crucial therapeutic agents to treat obesity-related metabolic diseases.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        일본뇌염 바이러스 국내분리주 K94P05의 NS4 부위 분석

        김은정,남재환,박용근,조해월 대한바이러스학회 1997 Journal of Bacteriology and Virology Vol.27 No.2

        To investigate the NS4 region of JEV, NS4 cDNA of K94P05 (JEV strain isolated from Korea in 1994) was amplified by RT-PCR and analyzed by sequencing PCR product. Genomic size of NS4 was 1212bp and nucleotide sequence was compared with that of other JEV strains. Nucleotide homology between JaOAr582 and K94P05 was 91.1% and that between Beijing and K94POS was 89.8%, respectively. But the nucleotide sequence of E region of JaOAr582 and K 94POS showed 97.0% homology and that of Beijing and K94P05 did 95.8% homology. NS4 protein was expressed as a form of fusion protein by a prokaryotic expression system. The induced fusion product showed a lower molecular weight than predicted size and remained insoluble. The NS4 protein might be cleavaged by E. coli protease. Concluding above results, high hydrophobicity of the NS4 protein supported the fact that this protein played a role as a membrane component and the poor nucleotide sequence conservativity among JEV strains suggested that this region might be important to adapt each viral growth environment.

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