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The main objective of the research is to develop a research code solving transient incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. In this research code, Adams-Bashforth method was applied to the convective terms of the navier stokes equation and the splitted equations were discretized spatially by finite element methods to solve the complex geometry problems easily. To reduce the divergence on the boundaries of pressure poisson equation due to the unsuitable pressure boundary conditions, multi step approximation pressure boundary conditions derived from the boundary linear momentum equations were used. Simulations of Lid Driven Flow and Flow over Cylinder were conducted to prove the accuracy by means of the comparison with results of the previous workers.
A jet injected normally into a cross flow has been found to have the cross section of a horseshoe shape. It occurs by a twin vortex motion in the region downstream of the jet injection. Such a flow is inherently and highly three-dimensional and numerical calculations should play an important role. The three-dimensional momentum equations with buoyancy effect and energy equation are solved to obtain the velocity distributions, center-line trajectories, cross sectional shape and entrainment. The density difference is sufficiently small, so that the Boussinesq approximation is considered to be valid. The SIMPLE algorithm is applied in a staggered grid system of a calculational domain for the numerical method.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of celebrity endorsers used in fast food industry among highschool and undergraduate students. By taking the sample's age and income into consideration, the advertisement examples of fast food industries were chosen for this study. Data was collected by questionnaires from 400 students. For statistical analysis, the SPSS V19.0 was used for reliability and factor analysis, chi-square test and regression analysis. The results are as follows: First, there was a significant difference (p<0.01) in advertising effects according to gender and education level. Out of the consumers who were exposed to celebrity endorsers, the highschool students and women showed higher advertising effects. Second, the advertising attitude was positively related to brand images (F: 479.680, p<0.01) and buying intentions (F: 1101.427, p<0.01) as well as brand images on purchase intentions (F: 492.175, p<0.01). In conclusion, the consumers with positive attitudes towards advertisements will also evaluate brand images positively and be more likely to purchase the products.
A 38-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to agitation, nausea, chest discomfort, tachycardia and hypertension 6h after ingesting approximately 60 capsules of sibutramine. The woman developed the clinical features of acute psychosis, including auditory hallucination, agitation and paranoid ideation, on day 2. No relevant changes were detected on the laboratory examinations or on the electrocardiogram throughout the period of hospitalization. She was treated with risperidone and benzodiazepine. The symptoms subsequently resolved completely with cessation of the provoking agent. The patient was discharged on day 7 and the follow-up revealed no sequelae for 5 months.
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The current study evaluates the capacity of eugenol to regulate immediate allergic reaction by control of histamine release. Administrations of eugenol (1M/kg, i.p.) at 60 min before and 5, 10 min after the compound 48/80 treatment (8mg/kg, i.p.) were shown the mortality rates as 0, 44.4, and 77.8%, respectively. A 60 min before administered group revealed a significant inhibition of serum histamine release compared with those of 5 and 10 min after the compound 48/80 injection. Eugenol (6-48mM) was also showed a dose-dependent activity on the compound 48/80-induced histamine release from the highly purified population of Alcian Blue-positive peritonea] mast cells. These results indicate that in vitro treatment with exogenous eugenol inhibited the active response of mast cell populations and modulated its characteristics.
In order to assess the reliability of engine mount for a vehicles, life test model and procedure are developed. By using this method, failure mechanism and life distribution are analyzed. The main results are as follows; i) the main failure mechanism is degradation failure of engine mount rubber by fatigue failure at dynamic load. ii) temperature is a second factor to affect a failure. iii) the life distribution of engine mount module is fitted well to Weibull life distribution and the shape parameter is 18.4 and the accelerated life model of that is fitted well to Arrhenius model.
Since the most of the existing non-Newtonian models are not adequate to apply to the lattmce Boltzmann method, it is a challenging task from both the theoretical and the numerical points of view. In this research the hydro-kinetic model was modified and applied to the 3-D moving sphere in the circular channel flow and the characteristics of the shear thinning effect by the HK-model was evaluated and the condition of Γ in the model was suggested for the stable simulation to generate non-trivial prediction in three dimension strong shear flows. On the wall boundaries of circular channel the curved wall surface treatment with constant velocity condition was applied and the bounceback condition was applied on the sphere wall to simulate the relative motion of the sphere. The condition is adequate at the less blockage than 0.7 but It may need to apply a multi-scale concept of grid refinement at the narrow flow region. to obtain the stable numerical results.
본고는 두 문제를 연구의 주제로 삼고 있다. 첫째는 유대그리스도교적 세계관이 전제하고 있는 동물윤리에 대한 성서적 논증이다. 여기서 인간은 하나님의 형상대로 지음 받은 존재요 이성적 동물이다. 그런 만큼 인간은 누구보다 자신의 삶을 성공적인 삶으로 만들어 가야 할 책임이 있다. 다시말해 자신의 삶을 하나님과의 관계 속에서 형성하며 하나님의 뜻에 따라 창조세계를 개척하나가야 한다. 유대그리스도교적 동물윤리의 중심과제는, 인간이 하나님 앞에서 자신의 공피조물을 위한 책임을 다하는 것이다. 둘째는 인간기원적(anthropogen) 인간중심주의에 대한 윤리적 숙고이다. 인간중심주의가 인간을 윤리적 숙고의 출발점으로 삼는 것은 사실이지만 인간외적 현실성의 고유한 가치도 고려한다. 그렇다고 인간과 인간외적 생명체 사이에 존재하는 차이점을 동일하게 다룰 수는 없다. 인간기원적 인간중심주의의 관점에서 볼 때 인간의 의무는 동물을 그들 자신의 고유한 가치에 맞게 다루는 것이다. 이 말은, 인간이 창조세계에서 특별한 위치를 차지하고 있다고 해서 임의적으로 동물의 관심을 인간의 관심보다 앞세워서는 안 된다는 것을 의미한다. Der Aufsatz konzentriert sich auf zwei Fragen. Zum einen auf eine biblisch begrundete Tierethik, die das judenchristliche Weltbild voraussetzt. Dort ist es dem Mensch als imago Dei et animal rationale aufgegeben, sein Leben so zu gestalten, daß es als gelungen bezeichnet wird. Das gilt fur die Ausgestaltung seiner Gottesbeziehung wie fur die Bearbeitung der Schopfung. Kernaufgabe der judenchristlichen Tierethik ist die Verantwortung des Menschen vor Gott fur seine Mitgeschopfe. Zum anderen auf eine anthropogene Anthropozentrik, die somit voraussetzt, dass der je eigene Wert der nichtmenschlichen Wirklichkeit zu berucksichtigen ist, aber entsprechend seiner Verschiedenheit unterschiedlich zu gewichten ist. Im Rahmen einer anthropogene Anthropozentrik ist der Mensch verpflichtet, Tiere ihrem jeweiligen Eigenwert entsprechend zu behandeln. Die vorausgesetzte Sonderstellung des Menschen besagt daher keinesfalls, dass jedes beliebige menschliche Interesse Vorrang hat gegenuber tierlichen Interessen.