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Despite the facts that there had been seemingly successful attempts to improve the relations between the US. and North Korea as well as North Korea's relations with South Korea and Japan in the past, the revelation of the nuclear program in October 2002 by North Korea puts the time back to pre-1994. North Korea blamed the U.S. for escalating the tension since the September 11 attacks and following developments, such as Bush's remarks on "axis of evil" and the war in Iraq. The US. and its allies criticize North Korea for not giving up its development of weapons of mass destruction in violation of the 1994 Agreed Framework. Unlike the previous administration in the US., what is required from North Korea to improve the relations with the Bush administration is verification of North Korean nuclear program, calling for dismantling it before any serious improvement of relationship between the US. and North Korea. A more comprehensive engagement is now in order through either the three-party talks or truly multilateral talks with six-party. North Korea should not abandon this opportunity to resume talks with the US. and South Korea from such a perspective because a comprehensive engagement can also bring comprehensive benefit to North Korea. While the situation between the U.S. and North Korea was becoming more complicated since October 2002, South Korea had its presidential election in December 2002 For the first time, the US.-South Korea relations became a very sensitive political issue during the campaign. Because of the US. ruling of the case involving fatal accident of Korean middle school students killed by U.S. military tank during the military excercise in June 2002, the U.S.-South Korea military alliance system was seriously questioned by many Korean people. Many people in Korea questioned the nature of SOFA, and some extreme Koreans manipulated political situation calling for anti-Americanism. In addition to the domestic situation, there were rapid changes in international system The US. decided to take a unilateral military action against Iraq giving mixed message to both Koreas. The Roh Administration had to deal with both domestic and international developments even before its official inauguration in February 2003. The immediate task of the Roh administration was to restore the traditional alliance between the US. and South Korea in order to effectively deal with dangerous situation in North Korea. The new developments after the war in Iraq require new policies with different ways of coordinating the alliance between the US. and South Korea. It is required not only in case of North Korean nuclear development but also in the field of conventional military cooperation between the two allies. As Joseph Nye pointed out in his article published by Foreign Affairs in 1995 comparing the US.-Japan defense treaty as an oxygon of the bilateral relationship, the US.-South Korea military alliance must be the same for U.S.-South Korea relations. From such a perspective, this study will analyze possible policies for military cooperation between the US. and South Korea as the two countries deal with North Korea. After a brief introduction of this study, section two will compare the similarities and differences of North Korea policy between Kim Dae Jung Administration and the Roh government in South Korea. Section three will analyze the U.S. foreign policy in light of new international developments in general and Bush's North Korea policy in particular. In this section, interests and positions of major powers will be discussed. Section four will try to study the nature of US. military policy based on its force transformation and the impact on the US. forces in Korea. This section will focus on various options dealing with North Korean nuclear development as well as possible cooperation between the US. and South Korea. Section five then will points out some important issues for the military alliance between the two countries, such as burden sharing, defense budget of Korea, reduction and relocation of the US. forces in Korea, and conventional weapons of North Korea The final section will be a conclusion of this study emphasizing the importance of military alliance and policy coordination between the U.S. and South Korea in order to effective deal with the North Korean situation
Recent developments in the field of separation of mixed signals into music/voice components have attracted the attention of many researchers. Recently, iterative kernel back-fitting, also known as kernel additive modeling, was proposed to achieve good results for music/voice separation. To obtain minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimates of short-time Fourier transforms of sources, generalized spatial Wiener filtering (GW) is typically used. In this paper, we propose an advanced music/voice separation method that utilizes a generalized weighted β-order MMSE estimation (WbE) based on iterative kernel back-fitting (KBF). In the proposed method, WbE is used for the step of mixed music signal separation, while KBF permits kernel spectrogram model fitting at each iteration. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves better separation performance than GW and existing Bayesian estimators.