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This research was carried out to investigate the effects of some organic materials such as rice straw, compost, hairy vetch, phosphate rock, magnesium lime powder and ash in the organic paddy fields, and also to develope the new technique for better soil management using described materials. The results are as follows; Height and tiller of rice plants were higher in chemical fertilizer than rice straw or compost, however, those of rice plants in hairy vetch-rice cropping system reached to chemical fertilizer. The Eh value of soil has decreased consecutively since on 30th, May because of the rising of soil temperature by an increase in the activity of microbes. As a result of measuring yield and yield components, there is not significant difference between treatment. The application of organic materials enriched the contents of available phosphorus, exchangible potassium and calcium in soil, and, also improved the physical properties such as pore space rates and bulk density. From the viewpoint of soil management technology in organic paddy fields, the application of rice straw or organic compost might cause the decrease of yield compared with conventional cultivation system, chemical fertilizer, however, the application of hairy vetch residues of soil compensated for growth and yield as well as improved the physicochemical property. Therefore, it is assumed that the cultivation of hairy vetch for winter season can be one of the useful methods for organic farming system.
The chemical properties of oak tree wood vinegar and the effect of wood vinegar on the tomato seedling were investigated to apply wood vinegar efficiently to the organic and natural farming system. On the basis of the results from chemical properties of the oak tree wood vinegar, mineral nutrient contents of wood vinegar was low. Therefore, wood vinegar could not be a suitable nutrient source for the plant growth at 500~1000 times dilution level, which commonly used in the farming, if only wood vinegar is supplied for the nutrient source for the plant growth. The application of wood vinegar increased root growth up the 500 times dilution level while decreased shoot growth. Furthermore, the anion concentrations such as nitrate and phosphate of the plant were decreased by the application of wood vinegar while cation concentrations such as K, Ca, and Mg were increased. Phenolic compounds of wood vinegar such as chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid enhanced the root growth. Interestingly the application of ferulic acid increased both root and shoot growth at the level of 10⁻⁴M concentration. It indicated that the effect of wood vinegar on the production of healthy plant seedling may be due to the beneficial root growth by phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid and/or ferulic acid of the wood vinegar. However, the effect of the wood vinegar on the plant growth could be influenced by synergism or antagonism of different phenolic compounds in wood vinegar used. In addition, drench in the soil of wood vinegar may be more beneficial compared to foliar application for the improvement of root activity and plant growth.
This research carried out to investigate the effects of application of hairy vetch instead of duck-releasing in a large scale of duck-releasing cultivation. The results are as followed; Cultivation of hairy vetch, a green manure crop, for the winter season seemed to be a possible natural fertilizer to supply crop mineral nutrients. Application of hairy vetch residues improved physical properties of soil and was possible to assure better productivity of agricultural products. Introduction of hairy vetch into a large scale of duck-releasing cultivation reduced the pollution of agricultural water.