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This essay studies Gordon D. Kaufman`s concept of divine action both in its early and later phases and shows that his view of God`s action has consistently governed by his nonrealist theological program. Kaufman embarked on his reflection on divine action to specify God`s action in the world in a way that is accord with ordinary and literal usages of the word “action,” after the collapse of the Biblical Theology movement caused by its own lack of conceptual clarity regarding God`s action. However, Kaufman`s thoroughly nonrealist theological outlook makes all his talks of divine action an imaginative construct, disconnecting them from God`s reality. This in part is why Kaufman in the end drops the concept of divine action all together and identifies God with creativity, a non-personal force behind the evolutionary process. Kaufman`s thought process shows that nonrealist view of theology as imaginative construction is inadequate theological option for addressing the question of divine action in the world, for it is not a question about human imagination but about the reality of God.
When the service performance fails to meet the customers' expectation, customer will be dissatisfied with the service. This situation is called as service failure. The companies which has service failure situation try to recover the damage caused both to customers and eventually to the company itself. the most popular method of service recovery is the apology. Recently More studies have been conducted on the effect of CSR on the service recovery. This studies was conducted to compare the effect of CSR on the service recovery with the effect of apology. Also we tried to find out the moderating effect of type of service encounter and corporate intention. Results shows that apology is more effective method to recover the service failure, and the differential effect become even bigger when the service provider and customer are in the “true relationship” rather than just in the “service encounter.” We also showed that when the failure situation is cased by corporate intention, not by mistake, CSR is more effective method to recover the service failure than is apology.
As Wolfhart Pannenberg points out, the doctrine of prayer has rarely become a subject of serious theological investigations. Pentecostalism has not yet produced a comprehensive and coherent conceptual analysis of its own understanding of prayer either, despite its heavy indebtedness to the practice of prayer both in its theological and historical development. The thesis of this essay is that Pentecostal theology nevertheless has much to contribute to the theology of prayer, especially with the aid of its pneumatology that integrates seemingly conflicting factors within Christian understanding of prayer. There is a wrongheaded “either/or question” in the doctrine of prayer. That is, one tends to opt one over the other between petitionary prayer and “prayer of obedience.” The former refers to a prayer that asks something from God, while the latter a prayer that conforms to God's will. Theologians such as A. Ritschl and W.Herrmann presents prayer of thanksgiving, a type of “prayer of obedience,” as the one and only genuine kind of prayer, thus significantly downplaying petitionary prayer. Pentecostal theology refuses to narrow down the doctrine of prayer in either way between these two types of prayer. Such a standpoint is deeply rooted in the identity of Pentecostalism. Pentecostal emphasis on the person and the work of the Holy Spirit leads to two prominent Pentecostal prayers that have strong pneumatological implications: prayer in tongue and prayer for healing. While prayer for healing is a petitionary prayer, prayer in tongue has characteristics of “prayer of obedience” in that it minimizes the initiative of the human person who prays. Prayer in tongue blocks the possibility of disobedience by conforming the human faculty of language to the utterances given by the Holy Spirit. While Pentecostal prayer for healing often makes an insisting and even aggressive kind of petitionary prayer, prayer in tongue presupposes yielding of the human language as the pinnacle expression of human will, before the initiative of the Holy Spirit. Pentecostal theology has never attempted to choose between prayer for healing and prayer in tongue. In other words, Pentecostalism has always embraced both petitionary prayer and “prayer of obedience,” inspired by its understanding of the work of the Holy Spirit. Pentecostal pneumatology thus makes an adequate theological locus that nurtures a genuinely integrative doctrine of prayer.
Dr. “Youngsan” Yonggi Cho's theology has been well known for its emphasis on the person and the work of the Holy Spirit as well as on the fivefold gospel and the threefold blessing. Focusing on these factors, many Youngsan scholars have typically characterized Youngsan's theology as centering upon pneumatology and the theology of blessing. Recently, however, several scholars argued that the real center of Youngsan's theology lies not in his theology of blessing or his pneumatology but in his Christology, or more specifically his theology of the cross, which functions as the material ground for all other themes of his theology. Although building upon this newer interpretation, this paper points out that it is not sufficient to view Youngsan's theology of the cross only as the material ground of his theology. The thesis of this paper is that the theology of the cross is not only the material but also the epistemological ground of Youngsan's theology. This paper also finds the archetype of a theology of the cross as theological epistemology in Martin Luther and sees much parallel between the theologies of Luther and Youngsan.
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The purpose of this study is to make researches in the readability as a way of open teaching method that is focused on learners, as the current trend of education is changing from supplier-originated education to customer-originated one. The English teaching courses, focused on students, consist of three parts; planning, implementation and evaluation. The phase of planning includes the needs analysis and the goal setting. And the implementation also includes the development of texts and teaching methods. Those are not different from existing English teaching processes. The student-originated curriculum, however, is quite different from traditional curricula in the fact that the former allows the students to participate in the decision-makings on the contents curricula and teaching methods. The student-originated curriculum suggests the teacher and students have prior conferences to negotiate on their curricula. The basic philosophies of English teaching open-method, particularly focused on learners, are to increase students' learning-motives and effectiveness by teaching them the issues and functions they need, and to most effectively use the limited session of class. In this study, corresponding to the concepts above, various teaching methods for reading such as bottom-up processing, top-down processing and interactive processing are further discussed. And some factors, related to more effective readability, and the principal models, including both substantial and formal background informations and the concept of super-recognition, are illustrated.
본 논문은 오순절 신학의 관점에서 하나님의 나라에 대한 신학적 성찰을 전개하는 것이 어떠한 의미인지, 그리고 오순절 신학이 이러한 성찰을 통해서 신학 일반에 공헌할 수 있는 것이 어떤 것인지의 문제를 다룬다. 오순절적 신앙과 신학은 하나님의 나라에 대한 두 가지 상반된 해석들, 즉 내면적, 윤리적 해석과 종말론적 해석을 아우르는 포괄적인 이해를 제시할 수 있다. 오순절 신앙과 신학의 핵심 내용인 사중복음 및 오중복음이 “성결케 하시는 주 예수”(Jesus the Sanctifier)에 대한 윤리적 고백과 “다시 오실 왕 예수”(Jesus the Coming King)에 대한 종말론적인 고백을 동시에 강조하고 있는 점에서 이러한 포괄적 이해의 단초가 발견된다. 대체로 신학의 역사는 예수가 전한 하나님 나라 개념의 다면적이고 풍부한 모습을 충분히 반영하지 못해 왔다. 오순절 신학 역시 하나님의 나라가 단 하나의 개념이 아니라 하나님이 왕이시라는 믿음에 깊이 뿌리박은 광범위한 생각들의 모음이라는 통찰을 진지하게 받아들이고 풍부하고 다면적인 하나님 나라의 본질을 보다 충실히 반영하는 신학을 전개해야 하는 과제를 안고 있다. 오순절 신학이 이러한 부분에서 공헌하고 있는 한 예가 신유와 하나님의 나라의 연관성에 대한 강조이다. 본 논문은 오순절주의의 신유 신학은 하나님 나라와 신유의 연관성을 경시하는 비오순절주의 신학 일각에 대해 도전을 제기함으로써 하나님 나라의 신학에 기여해왔음을 강조하고 있다. 그러나 다른 한편으로는 오순절주의 역시, 보다 하나님 나라의 본질을 반영하는, 보다 깊이 있는 신유신학의 정립을 필요로 하고 있음도 지적한다. 더 나아가 본 논문은 바람직한 오순절 신유 신학의 정립을 가로막는 요소로 일부 오순절주의자들 사이에 퍼져 있는 승리주의적인 신유 이해를 비판하는 한편, 지연과 인내와 성장, 불가지론과 아픔 등 지상에서의 하나님 나라 체험의 요소들을 수용하는 보다 성숙한 오순절적 신유 신학 및 하나님 나라의 신학을 제안하고 있다. This essay addresses the question of what it means to reflect on the kingdom of God from a characteristically Pentecostal theological perspective as well as the question of how Pentecostal theology may contribute to understanding the kingdom of God. Pentecostal faith and theology have a potential for providing an integrative understanding of the kingdom of God that embraces two opposite interpretations of the kingdom of God: the internal and ethical interpretation on the one hand, and the eschatological interpretation on the other. Such a potential is found in the Pentecostal confessions of “Jesus as the Sanctifier” and “Jesus as the Coming King,” the two confessions from the fourfold and fivefold gospels that emphasize both ethical and eschatological aspects of Jesus' ministry. The Christian theological tradition has not sufficiently explored the multifaceted and rich connotations of the kingdom of God that Jesus preached. Pentecostal theology also has the task of developing a theology that is more faithful to the richness of the reality of the kingdom of God. Such a development can be better facilitated by the insight that the kingdom of God is not a single concept but a group of wide ranging reflections deeply rooted in the belief that God is king. An example of the Pentecostal contribution to broadening the concept of the kingdom of God is found in its emphasis on the connection between divine healing and the kingdom of God. This essay stresses that the Pentecostal theology of divine healing has provided a fresh reflection on the kingdom of God by posing a challenge against the non-Pentecostal theologies with a tendency of downplaying the significance of divine healing in relation to the kingdom of God. This essay also points out that the Pentecostal theology, on the other hand, needs to present a more profound and robust theology of divine healing in order to be true to the nature of the kingdom of God. One major obstacle to an adequate theology of divine healing has been the wide-spread triumphalism in the Pentecostal approach to the healing ministry. A mature Pentecostal theology of divine healing and of the kingdom of God should do more justice to the complex experiences of the kingdom of God on earth that include delay, patience, growth, agnosticism, and suffering.
본 논문은 오순절 목회자이자 신학자로서 기도, 특히 청원기도를 강조해 온 영산 조용기 목사의 청원기도론에 대한 조직신학적 연구이다. 기도, 그중에서도 하나님께 구체적인 행동, 사건, 상태에 대한 특정한 요구를 아뢰는 청원기도는 기독교 신앙과 영성의 가장 중요한 부분들 가운데 하나이면서도 상대적으로 드물게 신학적 성찰의 대상이 되어 온 주제이다. 영산은 일반적인 의미의 학술적 저작이 아니라 오순절 신학의 중요한 연구 자료이자 오순절 신학의 전개 방법인 설교와 강연, 저술, 목회 사역, 그리고 기도생활을 통해서 청원기도론을 발전시켜 왔다. 영산은 기독교적 기도의 여러 다른 형태들의 다양성과 중요성, 심지어 우선성을 인정하면서도 청원기도를 기도론의 중심 주제로 삼고 있다. 영산의 청원기도론의 특징은 청원이 단순한 청원이라기보다는‘강청'이라는 점이다. 영산은 분명한 소원을 가지고 부르짖으며, 물러서지 않고 지속적으로, 이루어질 것을 입술로 고백하며 강청하는 청원기도를 강조한다. 그러면서도 영산은 어떠한 강청도 하나님의 뜻에 부합되어야 하고 올바른 동기에서 드려져야 한다는 청원기도의 근본 조건에 종속되어야 한다고 역설한다. 영산의 청원기도론은 기도를 들으시고 응답하시는 하나님의 실재성, 그리고 청원에 대한 응답을 주권적으로 정하시는 하나님의 주권성을 그 신론적 전제로 하고 있다. 이것은 영산의 복음주의적이고 정통주의적인 신학적 면모이다. 아울러 영산의 청원기도론은 보다 관계적이고 구체적이고 체험적인 오순절적 신론의 요소들도 함의하고 있다. 즉, 영산에게 있어 하나님은 기도자의 생활의 구체적이고 때로는 물질적인 현장에서 기도에 응답하시고 체험적인 관계를 맺어 주시는 분이다. 따라서 영산에게 있어 보다 올바른 기독교적 신론은 사변적인 신론이 아니라 관계적, 현장적, 구체적인 신론이다. 영산의 청원기도론에 함의된 신론은 신학의 언어가 내적인 의미에서 기도의 언어라는 기독교 신학의 오랜 통찰이 오순절 신학적으로 재현된 하나의 사례라고 할 수 있다. Prayer, especially petitionary prayer, is one of the most prominent and commonly practiced features of Christian spirituality. Throughout his career, Pastor David Yonggi Cho (hereafter Youngsan) has emphasized the importance of prayer not by writing formal “theology” of prayer in academia, but by engaging in spiritual and pastoral endeavors such as preaching, conference speaking, devotional writing, and laying hands on people around the world. In Pentecostal theology, these immediate and direct spiritual activities are fully recognized as legitimate and important ways of doing theology. This essay addresses Youngsan's theology of petitionary prayer by analyzing the variety of ways he utilizes to convey his theological standpoint on prayer. Fully mindful of the significance of other types of prayer, Youngsan centers his theology of prayer upon petitionary prayer. He also stresses that petitionary prayer must be a determined, aggressive and persistent prayer, yet under two conditions: it should be subject to God's will and out of right motive. Youngsan's understanding of petitionary prayer presupposes his evangelical and distinctively Pentecostal doctrine of God. In Youngsan's realist and relationalist view of divine nature, God hears and answers petitionary prayer even in the realm of materiality because of His character as the one who cares about all aspects of human life and wants to build a concrete relationship with humankind. With close interaction between immediate spirituality and reflective doctrinal contents, Youngsan's theology of petitionary prayer is an enactment of the venerable Christian theological tradition that recognizes prayer as a form of theology, and vice versa.
세계가 엄청나게 빨리 변하고 있다. 시대는 변화하고 그 속도는 점점 빨라지고 있다. 현대 모든 분야에서 혁명적인 변화를 목도하는데 이러한 변화를 우리는 ‘4차 혁명'시대라고 부른다. 하나님께서는 ‘자연 세계'를 창조하셨고, 인간은 ‘가상세계'를 만들었다. 하나님께서는 태초에 아무것도 없는 상태에서 온 우주 만물과 시간과 공간을 함께 만드셨다. 성경에 기록되어 있는 인류 역사 속에서 인간은 무수히 많은 창조적 행위를 하고 여러 가지 창조물을 남겼지만, 그것은 어디까지나 자연 세계에 종속되거나 의존하는 것들이었다. 그리고 행복 역시 ‘행복1.0'은 ‘행복은 내가 원하는 것을 얻는 데서 온다'이며, ‘행복 2.0'은 ‘행복은 안과 밖에 있다'이다. ‘행복 3.0'은 ‘행복은 사이에 있다'고 말한다. ‘행복 4.0'은 행복은 자신이 만들 수 있다는 것이다. 그러므로 4차 산업혁명 시대에 있어서 그리스도인들은 행복4.0에 특히 주목해야 한다. God created the natural world, and man created the virtual world. The most noble creature in the world created by God is man. Man is indeed special among all creations. Man has a desire to exercise his creativity by creating something that resembles himself just as God did so by creating man. In the Fourth Industrial Revolution which is proceeding with a huge and irresistible flow, the development of artificial intelligence-based robot technology is expected to bring many changes to human life in various ways. The research results on the human genome have been related to various diseases of human beings. In this world of Fourth Industrial Revolution, genes are being used to preemptively deal with diseases and even to cure them by correcting the genetic information of concerned patients. Happiness is one of the greatest concerns of philosophies and religions. The biggest difference between the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Industrial Revolution and the 4th Industrial Revolution does not lie in making people eat well, live better, or be richer. The difference is in the fact that humans have begun to set foot in what was originally deemed the domain of the God. The fourth Industrial Revolution speaks in various ways, but from a theological point of view, it is similar to man"s approach to the Tree of Good and Evil in the Garden of Eden. We see revolutionary changes in all areas of modernity, which we call the Fourth Revolution. God created the "natural world" out of love, and man created the "virtual world" in like ways. God created time and space with all things of the universe from nothing in the beginning. In the history of mankind recorded in the Bible, human beings have made countless creative acts out of love, and left behind many great creations, but they have all been subordinated to or depended on the natural world created by the God in the end. Happiness 1.0 is "Happiness comes from getting what one wants. Happiness 2.0 is "Happiness is In and Out." Happiness 3.0 says "Happiness is between." But Happiness 4.0 is "Happiness can be made by Oneself".
This essay analyzes J. L. Schellenberg`s analogy argument from divine hiddenness and mounts a critique of its reasonableness. Schellenberg`s contribution to the age-long discussions of divine hiddenness has been to relate the issue not to divine mystery or providence as most thinkers have attempted, but to the absence or nonexistence of God. Schellenberg argues that a “perfectly loving God” of traditional theism in reality does not exist. He maintains that a perfectly loving God, if he exists, would not create “inculpable nonbelief” by hiding his existence and love from seekers who are willing to believe if they are offered sufficient evidence. Schellenberg concludes that there still exist such seekers and thus a perfectly loving God does not exist. In his analogy argument, Schellenberg transfers a hypothetical nonexistent mother (base analog) who never shows up despite her little child`s cry for help to the perfectly loving God (target analog) who often seems hidden even from earnest seekers. It is my thesis that this transfer is not reasonable because it does not do justice to the infinite disanalogy between a human mother and God. Schellenberg`s analogy argument ultimately fails to become a probable explanation of God`s hiddenness as he univocally applies key predicates such as “care for” and “love” to God and humankind. Being a weak inductive argument that requires independent support for its conclu sion, no analogy argument can create knowledge of God, including the knowledge of God`s nonexistence. Analogy can be a part of the knowledge of God if and if only it is confirmed and supported by divine revelation.