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Pseudomelanosis duodeni is a rare condition that has been only recently recognized. Dark pigment accumulates in macrophages located in the lamina propria of the duodenal mucosa. Diffuse small discreted brownishblack pigmentation at duodenal bulb was noted during gastroduodenoscopy by chance, in a 50 year old male patient with chronic renal failure, who had been treated antihypertensive drugs for 15 years and regular hemodialysis for 6 years. With the electron microscope, blackish electron dense granules were found within the cytoplasm of the macrophage located in the lamina propria and with the study of histochemistry (stained with Prussian-Blue, Masson-Fontana method) the pigment contained iron and other unknown material. The source of the pigment or the mechanism of pigment formation is unclear and has yet to be clarified.
We have treated polyester fabric with CF_4, C_2Fe, SF6 and C3F6 glow discharge plasmas to develop functional fabrics which preserve moisture transportation and water proofing nature. Modified properties were evaluated by water vapor permeation rate and breakthrough water pressure. The change of surface morphology was observed by SEM. Fiber interstice of the plasma treated fabric was calculated as 0.32㎛, and this value was sufficiently ideal as water repellent material. The moisture transportation of CF_4 treated fabric was good as much as untreated fabric, and those of C_2F_6-treated, SF_6-treated fabrics were reduced by 1∼3%, and that of C_3F_6-treated fabric was reduced by 15%. The best treatment condition were 0.06 torr 120 seconds in CF_4, 0.05 torr 30 seconds in C_2F_6, 0.08∼0.15 ton 90 seconds in SR and 0.1 ton 45 seconds in C_3F_6 respectively. The grade of moisture transportation effect was CF_4>C_2F_6>SF_6>>C_3F_6, and water proofing effect was C_2F_6◁그림삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요)CF_4>C_3F_6>SF_6. It was observed by SEM that the thin film was formed on the surface of the treated substrate by the fluorocarbon plasma treatment.
On Calcium Deposition prevention Effects of Water-Soluble Polymer Builders.(Ⅲ) -- The effect of Substratum -- The influence of substrates on calcium deposition on the fabrics water studied by repeated laundering the Rayon.Cotton, Polyester(P.E.T) and alkali-treated P.E.T fabrics with water solubte polymer builders and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (NaDBS) in the hard water of 300P.P.M. CaCO_3. The polymer builders were used polyvinylalchohol(PVA) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose(NaCMC). The amounts of calcium deposits on the fabric was determinded by EDTA-book-Titration methods. The results of this study were as follows: 1. It was found that PVA and NaCMC were effective to prevent on calcium deposition on all samples in spite of the dissimilarily properties in each fabric. 2. When PVA was used, the deposition of calcium onto the polyester fabric was particularly prevented, and the prevention effect of NaCMC was shown remarkably at cellulose fabrics. 3. The surface conditions of the substrate had an influence on calcium deposition, and the facrics of irregular or coarse surface were affected the presence of NaDBS in washing system.
The influence of the water-soluble polymer builders on calcium deposition on the fabric was studied by repeating laundering the linen and ramie blended fabrics with sodium dodecylbenzen sulfonate(NaDBS) in hard water of 300 P.P.M. CaCO_3. The polymer builders were used sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and polyvinylalcohol(PVA). The amounts of calcium deposits on the fabrics were determinded by EDTA-Back-titration methods. The results of this study were as follows: 1. By increasing the polymer builder concentration, the amounts of calcium deposits on all blended fabrics were decreased. In the case of PVA, calcium deposition on the polyester blended fabrics was prevented remarkably. 2. It is concluded that the preventing action of PVA is not ascribed to PVA adsorbed on the fabrics but to that dissolved in aqueous solution, and that of NaCMC is ascribed to NaCMC adsolbed on the fabrics and the calcium particles 3. It seemed that the prevention effect on calcium deposition on the fabric was due to complex formation between polymer builder and NaDBS, and that becames most remarkably at a critical micelle concentration region of NaDBS. 4. As the water hardness increased, the amounts of calcium deposition on all blended fabrics were increased, however the prevention effects of polymer builders were maintained.
In this article, the author aims at reconstructing a Neo Confucianist Kim Eung-jo's (or Haksa, 1587~1667) life and major characteristics of his thought. He belonged to the tradition of Toegye School and was strongly influenced by Yeoheon sect of the School. Still, his works have not been under scrutiny so far, and this article aims at the very work of clarifying his family background, his life and the contents and characteristics of his thoughts on simseong suyang ron, hwa-yi ron, ye-ron. This will contribute to recasting and fertilizing our understanding of Yeoheon Schol and late Choseon period intellectual history. 학사 김응조(1587~1667)는 장현광(여헌, 1554~1637)의 제자로 영남 퇴계학파의 한 전통을 계승하는 학자였고 그의 학문에는 퇴계학파, 특히 여헌학파의 문제의식이 담겨있다고 할 수 있다. 김응조의 가문은 송도와 서울에서 세거했으며 그의 선조들은 도학을 중시했는데, 성혼의 문인이면서 이황을 존숭했던 그의 아버지 김대현 때까지만 해도 기호학파와 영남학파의 맥을 모두 이었지만, 집안이 영남으로 낙향한 이후 그의 형제들은 모두 영남학파의 일원으로서 남인의 정치노선을 충실히 따랐으며 척화론을 지지했다. 물론 그의 집안의 이러한 정치적 노선과 학풍은 김응조에게도 그대로 이어졌다.김응조의 일상생활은 ‘敬’ 한 글자로 요약할 수 있다. 마음이 발하기 전(未發)이나 이미 발한 후(已發)에나 모두 敬한 상태로 몸과 마음을 유지하려 노력하는 것이 바로 그가 사는 모습이었다. 마음이 아직 발하지 않았을 때 함양하고(敬) 마음이 이미 발했을 때 성찰하며(誠) 몸과 마음을 다스렸던 것이다. 김응조는 장현광에게 예학에 대해 주로 배웠던 것 같은데, 이를 바탕으로 四禮問答을 편찬하였다. 이는 주자대전과 퇴계집, 서애집, 한강집, 여헌집 중에서 관혼상제에 대한 예설을 모아 분류하고 편집한 것으로 가례에 대한 영남 퇴계학파의 설을 집대성한 것이었다. 한편 그는 중화와 오랑캐에 대하여 매우 강렬한 구분 의식을 가지고 있었으며 ‘오랑캐’인 청나라가 ‘중화’의 나라 명을 멸망시키자 그 의식이 더욱 고조되었다. 또한 북인과 조목에 의해 주화론자로 몰렸던 류성룡을 변호하는 西厓柳先生辨誣錄을 짓고, 이 일을 계기로 퇴계학파 내부에서 심화되었던 조목 문하와 류성룡 문하의 갈등을 조정하려 노력했다. 이를 통해 우리는 그가 퇴계학파 내부에서 조정자이자 정리자의 역할을 수행했음을 알 수 있다.
When useing Sodium carboxymetyl cellulose (NaCMC) as polymer builder in the removal of deposited calcium on the cotton fabric, the effect of Sodium n-alkylsulfate having various chain length of alkyl group as surfactant was investigated. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The amount of calcium removal was increased by increasing the concentrtion of surfactants, and that remarkably icreased at cirtical micelle concentration (c.m.c) of each Sodium nalkylsufate. 2. The amount of calcium removal was increased by increasing the concentration of NaCMC. It seemed that this was due to complex formation between NaCMC and surfactant by a strong hydrophobic interaction. 3. The influence of temperature becames more remarkable with growing alkyl chain length of Sodium n-alkylsufate. 4. By adding the Na_2 SO_4 the rate of calcium removal was increased, and that especially increased in the case of C_14(Sodium tetradecylsulfate). 5. Generally the order of calcium removal effect of Sodium n-alkylsulfates were C_16>C_14>C_18>C12.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the water-soluble polymers on the removal of deposited calcium on the cotton fabric. The polymers were used sodium carboxmethyl cellulose (Na CMC) and poly vinyl clcohol(PVA). The amount of calcium deposits on the fabric was determined by EDTA-back titration methods. The results of this study were as follows: 1. By increasing the polymer concentration to 0.05g/100ml, the amount of calcium removal was increased, and Na CNC was more effective than PVA. 2. It seemed that the increase of the rate of calcium removal was due to complex formation between polymer and Na DBS. 3. When water-soluble polymer was used, the pH, added alkaline builders and temperature of washing solution did not influence on the removal of deposited calcium on the cotton fabric. 4. The tate of calcium removal was increased with increasing concentration of STPP as sequestering agent. At high concentration of STPP, however, the rate was rather decreased with increasing concentration. 5. The amount of calcium removal was increased with increasing wash cycle to 3 times.