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Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, was transplanted reciprocally between contaminated site (St. STP) and relatively less contaminated site (St. UB) in Onsan Bay, Korea in order to estimate heavy metal accumulation and release. Transplanted and indigenous mussels were collected 8 times over 108 days deployment at both sites and analyzed for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn using ICP/MS. Cu and Zn concentration did not show any significant differences between transplanted and indigenous mussels throughout the experiment period, although dissolved Cu and Zn concentrations in seawater were significantly higher at contaminated site. Pb accumulated rapidly, while Cd did not show any accumulation in the mussels transplanted from St. UB to St. STP. These accumulation patterns might reflect the variation of dissolved metal concentration; dissolved Pb concentration was significantly higher in St. STP than St. UB, while dissolved Cd concentration was similar between both sites throughout this experiment. Release of Cd and Pb in the mussels transplanted from St. STP to St. UB was not significant during the transplantation period. The levels and variation of Pb and Cd concentrations in mussels transplanted from St. STP to St. UB were similar to those in the indigenous mussels at St. STP throughout the period. Therefore, Cd and Pb accumulated in indigenous mussels may indicate the integrated metals throughout their lives, not responding to the present status of seawater because the release of accumulated metals in mussels occurs very slowly when the seawater metal levels are lowered. On the other hand, since the transplanted mussels can respond immediately to the levels of metals in seawater, it may be suggested that the present status of heavy metals in seawater can be only acquired from the metal levels of mussels transplanted from clean environments.
Arkshell clams, Scapharca broughtonii, are economically important edible bivalves and widely cultivated in the Southern coast of Korea. Recently, the production of S. broughtonii has been dramatically decreased and various reasons including chemical pollution were suspected to be related to the production declines. However, it remains unknown whether the chemical pollution levels of the surrounding environments were high enough for the biological and ecological disturbance for the population of S. broughtonii, because no systematic toxicological study using S. broughtonii has been conducted previously. In the present study, we exposed arkshell clams, S. broughtonii to various waterborne pollutants including heavy metals (Cd, Cu and Hg), ammonia and organotins (tributyltin and triphenyltin) to determine the effect concentrations of these pollutants for the survival of S. broughtonii for 20 days. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of S. broughtonii were 2.1 mg/l for Cd, 0.065 mg/l for Cu, 0.40 mg/l for Hg, 79.4 mg/l for total ammonia (1.9 mg/l for unionized ammonia), 0.5 μg/l for TBT, and 14 μg/l for TPhT. Lethal toxicity of the most pollutants increased with both exposure duration and concentration. The toxicity of TBT was greatest for S. broughtonii, followed by TPhT > Cu > Hg > Cd > ammonia. The sensitivities of S. broughtonii to heavy metals and TBT were comparable to those of other aquatic organisms, but they were relatively tolerable to ammonia. The environmental concentrations of the tested pollutants were compared with the effect concentrations of those for the survival of S. broughtonii to assess the potential risks of the pollutants in the field conditions.
螢光X線을 利用하여 珪酸鹽鑛物中의 主成分인 $SiO_2$, $Al_2O_3$, $Fe_2O_3$, CaO, MgO 및 $K_2O$를 迅速히 分析할 目的으로 試料의 處理 測定 및 各條件에 對하여 檢討하였다. 試料를 Lithium Tetraborate로 용융하여 300Mesh 以上의 微粉末로 한後 40,000Lb의 壓力으로 成型하여 Tungsten과 Chromium 對陰極의 X-線管과 LiF, EDDT, ADP의 分光結晶을 使用하여 測定하였다. 各成分에 對한 檢量曲線은 Matrix Effect를 고려하여 N.B.S 및 International Rock Standard를 選定 使用하였고 Lanthanum Oxide 및 Binder로서 Borie Acid를 첨가하여 얻었다. 各成分에 對하여 本法의 再現性 및 誤差를 檢討하기를 爲하여 I.R.S T-1을 使用하여 測定한 結果 0.47($SiO_2$), 0.85($Al_2O_3$), 0.05($Fe_2O_3$), 0.07(caO), 0.02($K_2O$), 0.13(MgO)의 標準偏差를 얻었다. 또한 化學分析植에 對한 偏差를 求하고져 Clay, Kaoline, Alunite, Wallastonite 및 Zeolite 等의 珪酸鹽鑛物을 選定하여 化學分析 및 本法에 依한 分析結果를 비교하였다. X-ray Fluorescence Spectrographic method has been applied for the rapid determination of main components, such as $SiO_2$, $Al_2O_3$, $Fe_2O_3$, CaO, MgO and $K_2O$ in Silicate Minerals. In this method, Boric Acid was used as a binder after fusion with Lithium Tetraborate in the briquet-making process. The Lithium Flubride, Ammonium di-Hydrogen Phosphate and Ethylene Diamine d-Tartrate crystals were used with Scintillation counter and Gas Flow counter as the detectors. Several influences on this method were discussed, including the particle size of samples and reducing of the matrix effects by dilution with Boric Acid and addition of Lanthanum Oxide with the diluent. In order to test the reproducibility of this method described above, the determination of the same kind of samples were carried out repeatedly, and the results obtained were presented in the table. Calibration curves for each element were presented, and the application of the method was tested with International Rock Standard T-Ⅰ. All the results obtained by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrographic method were compared with the results by conventional chemical method.