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Objective: The purpose of this study was to create soil contamination maps using QGIS (Quantum Geographic Information System) and suggest selection methods for soil pollution sources for preferential investigation in a soil contamination survey. Method: Data from soil contamination surveys over five years in Gyeonggi-do Province, South Korea (2013- 2017) were used for making soil contamination maps and analyzing the density of survey points. By analyzing points exceeding the concern level of soil contamination, soil pollutant sources for priority management were identified and selection methods for preferred survey points were suggested through a study of the model area. Results: A soil contamination survey was conducted at 1,478 points over five years, with the largest number of surveys conducted in industrial complex and factory areas. Soil contamination maps for copper, zinc, nickel, lead, arsenic, fluoride, and total petroleum hydrocarbons were made, and most of the survey points were found to be below concern level 1 for soil contamination. The density of the survey points is similar to that of densely populated areas and factory areas. The analysis results of points exceeding the criteria showed that soil pollutant sources for priority management were areas where ore and scrap metals were used and stored, traffic-related facilities areas, industrial complex and factory areas, and areas associated with waste and recycling. According to the study of the model area, the preferred survey points were traffic-related facilities with 15 years or more since their construction and factories with a score of 10 or more for soil contamination risk. Conclusion: Soil contamination surveys should use GIS for even regional distribution of survey points and for the effective selection of preferred survey points. This study may be used as guidelines to select points for a soil contamination survey.
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the impact of alcohol use on the antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence of Koreans living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods: A total of 144 HIV-infected Koreans older than the age of 19 years who had been receiving antiretroviral drugs for at least 3 months were surveyed. Alcohol use was identified as nonhazardous, binge, hazardous, and alcohol dependent as determined by the Alchol Use Disorder Identification Test- Korea (AUDIT-K). ART adherence was defined according to the components of adherence motivation, adherence knowledge, and 95% medication adherence using the modified Morisky scale. Collected data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis for each component of therapy adherence. Results: Of all participants, 13.9% were binge drinkers, 17.4% were hazardous drinkers, and 4.2% were alcohol dependent. For low adherence motivation, the odds ratio for the hazardous drinkers was 7.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.72-32.41; p = .007] and for the alcohol dependent, it was 12.61 (95% CI: 1.38-115.38; p = .025) when compared with the nonhazardous drinkers. For medication adherence under 95%, the odds ratio for binge drinkers was 4.65 (95% CI: 1.15-18.92; p = .032), for hazardous drinkers was 8.05 (95% CI: 2.08-31.20; p = .003), and for the alcohol dependent was 27.67 (95% CI: 2.12-360.51; p =.011). Conclusion: It is recommended that Korean institutions and governments develop specific mediation and counseling programs that include alcohol use-related monitoring for the improvement of the ART adherence of people living with HIV.
一般人只知道桐城派是淸代影響巨大的古文流派, 却不知道?還是一個?有地位的詩歌流派.其實桐城詩派所取得的成就和所生産的影響是超過文派的. 姚瑩在≪中復堂全集ㆍ桐舊集序≫書上論及: “海峰出而大振, 惜抱起而繼之, 然後詩道大昌, 蓋漢魏六朝三唐兩宋以及元明諸大家之美無一不備.” 因此能知道劉大?是桐城詩派的創始人和姚?是桐城詩派的繼承人. 看旣存硏究傾向起來大部分重視桐城派散文硏究, 相反的忽視桐城派詩歌硏究. 本論文的硏究目的卽是探明淸代文壇上占有過重要地位的桐城派詩人的詩的成就. 本論文先硏究對詩歌的桐城派詩人的創作觀, 把他們的創作觀分類三個方面. 1) 詩歌風格上追求陽剛之美. 2) 詩學方面上堅持詩文一理的見解. 3) 藝術手法上使用以文爲詩的手法. 這種桐城派詩人的創作意識對他們的創作實踐産生直接影響. 其次硏究桐城派詩人的作品裏??反映他們的創作觀. 桐城派詩人當中挑選劉大?ㆍ姚?ㆍ方東樹, 分析他們的作品. 劉大?的<奉題學使公所得王新建印章次原韻><鹿門山次韻>ㆍ姚?的<沈椒園按察晩芝亭圖><登永濟寺閣, 寺是中山王舊園>ㆍ方東樹的<閉戶><愁絶>是使用古文的手法創作的作品. 特別桐城派詩人在好像五ㆍ七言律詩一樣近體詩裏面使用古文的手法. 通過以上的硏究能了解桐城派詩人作詩上追求詩文相通的境地.
韓愈是中國文學史上貢獻?多的中唐時期古文運動的大家. 對於其古文運動的成就, 沒有人低?或疑心. 但對韓愈的詩, 却是自古至今褒貶不一. 愛韓愈詩者認爲“雖杜子美亦不及”, 不愛韓愈詩者則以爲“退之於詩本無所得”. 引起這些相反的評價的原因是甚?? 原因就是韓愈詩歌的散文的特徵,卽以文爲詩. 本論文的硏究目的卽是探明韓愈詩歌的散文特徵與了解其詩歌的散文意味. 韓愈的一些詩歌采用屬於散文範疇的議論. 他的作品<謝自然詩>和<薦士>都是模倣議論的內容和構成方式作成的. 好像是用詩歌的形式寫的議論文. 韓愈的有些詩是按照散文章法展開的. 比如<山石>是隨着時間的變化展開敍述. 可以說是模倣游記散文的敍述方式. <八月十五夜贈張功曹八月>敍述作者自身聽見的實際事件, 使用敍事散文的“烘托映?法”方式. <陸渾山火一首和皇甫湜用其韻>描寫陸渾山的大火災, 采用辭賦體的鋪陳和誇張的手法作詩. 詩歌創作中采用議論和散文章法可以說是韓愈詩歌的主要特徵. 詩歌的這種散文化反映了中唐時期的時代精神, 以及對宋詩形成的影響.
배경 : 중증 감염이나 염증이 있는 경우 다양한 정도의 비정상적 혈액응고 과정이 활성화됨에 따라 감염이나 염증 반응의 어떤기전이 혈액응고 과정에 영향을 미치는지 연구가 활발하다. 특히패혈증이 있는 환자에서 파종혈관내응고는 흔히 나타나는 현상이나 임상적인 연관관계는 확실하지 않다. 이에 저자들은 패혈증으로 진단받은 환자에서 혈액 응고계의 어떤 변화가 나타났는지 후향적 조사를 시행하고 혈액응고인자와 염증인자들간의 연관관계를 알아보았다. 방법 : 퇴원 시 패혈증으로 진단이 된 환자 101명을 대상으로환자들의 기저질환, 염증반응 인자, 혈액 응고 검사 변화를 후향적으로 조사하였다. 결과 : 101명의 환자에서 백혈구 수는 76%에서 기준치보다 증가되었으며, 6%에서 감소된 수치를 보였다. 혈소판 수는 65.3%의 환자에서 감소되었고 프로트롬빈 시간, 활성화부분트롬보플라스틴 시간, 항트롬빈 III, 그리고 D-dimer는 각 기준치를 벗어난 환자의 70.4%, 52.7%, 87.2% 그리고 100% 변화된 양상을나타내었다. 적혈구침강속도는 다른 인자에 비해 섬유소원과 상관관계 지수가 가장 높았고 C반응성단백과 응고인자들 간의 상관관계에서도 역시 섬유소원과의 상관관계 지수가 가장 높게 측정되었다.
This thesis started from the attempt to make it clear that 80's American artist Keith Haring(1958-1990) had conducted social intervention of criticism, resistance, and participation through his works, and so pursued public value. Haring of graffiti fame left popular and familiar cartoon style pictures on the street wall, the billboards, the posters and so on. Popular and playful works was explained as his unique characteristics, but Haring's creative way at the field has more value than just being grasped as artist's personal characteristics. Haring's work pieces became everyday art by joining with people's life, and are working as a social speaking place. So I think that these Haring's art works possess characteristics of 'the public sphere'. 'The Public Sphere' means that is independent and free from the government or partisan economic forces, so that is not connected with the interested relations, and that is the sphere of rational argumentation without 'disguise' or 'fabrication', and that is the sphere where general public can participate in and is inspected by them. The public sphere between the sphere of public authority such a nation and a market and the private sphere of free individual, it is mutually connected with them and works as the space forming public opinion. Private individuals communicate with this public sphere and perform a role of direct and indirect check, balance, and social criticism way off from power. Openness that should include the voice of not only leading power but also the socially weak such as citizens, women, homosexuals, minority races, and so on, and alienated class, is an index of the public characteristics. The public sphere is not working just with speech and mass media. Many artists as well as Haring open their mouth and act through an art at the center of society, and create another public sphere by an art. I understood that the real participatory and practical characteristics on the Haring's work is a phenomenon and current of a part of the art world including Haring. Such current started from 1960s is the in-depth effort to be connected with the life more closely, to communicate with people, and to improve problems of life. And it has pursued public value on the different way from the nation or public power. Artists have intervened in the society with strategic and positive ways in order to raise pushed-out value and sinked rights as the public agenda, and labored to accept the value of variety and difference at the society. The aspect of such social intervention is the notable features, findable on the Haring's works and process. Haring's works include art historical meanings and are expressed with familiar and plastic language, so they were able to communicate with various classes. And he secured various customers at the field and the street. This communicative and public approach factor raised the possibility much for his works to work as the public sphere. Haring presented critical and resistant speech toward society with his works based on this factor. He asserted his position and justice of gender identity as a sexual minority. And his such work continued to movement for alienated class and social week over his own rights. His speech and message on the wall painting, poster, T-shirts, billboard of the subway, and so on worked as a spectacle and pressed concern with social issues and consciousness shift. And he's been trying to protect and care people who is injured by HIV and drug and to realize social justice through social week protection. Haring's works planned to meet many people as much as possible performed its role of intervening in society through criticism, resistance, speech, and participation, and controlling and checking social issues. These things considered, Haring's works show his consciousness about public attributes of art, and obviously include public value seeking. And also we can find the meaning of such his work as that an art is working as the public spher