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본 논문은 두께 10 ㎜의 조선용 강판 AH36에 대해 레이저-아크 하이브리드 용접을 사용하여 원패스 관통용접을 실시함으로써 실제 조선 산업에서의 생산성 향상을 목적으로 연구되었다. 10 ㎜두께의 후판을 사용하였기 때문에 관통용접을 얻기 위해서는 더욱 높은 레이저 및 아크의 출력이 요구되었다. 그러나 보다 더 증가된 레이저 및 아크 출력의 사용은 비드 양단에 언더컷과 같은 결함을 야기하였다. 이러한 언더컷은 노치로 작용하여 용접 구조물의 강도를 약화시키므로 반드시 방지되어야하며, 본 실험에서는 아크의 변수인 용접 전압 및 펄스컬렉션을 조절함으로써 제어할 수 있었다. 용접된 시험편의 기계적 특성을 파악하기 위해 레이저 영역 및 아크 영역에 대해 경도 측정을 실시하였다. 그 결과, 열영향부는 조직의 변태로 인해 최대 경도가 용접부보다 높은 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 미세조직 관찰 결과, 열영향부는 마르텐사이트 및 베이나이트와 같은 경한 조직으로 구성되어 있는 것을 알 수 있었다. The purpose of this study is to improve productivity by implementing one-pass full penetration welding using laser-arc hybrid welding for AH36. On increasing the thickness of the plate, a higher power of laser and arc was required to obtain full penetration. However, increasing the power of heat source caused undercut defects at both ends of the bead. This undercut was prevented by controlling the parameters of welding voltage and pulse correction. Hardness measurement and tensile test were conducted to apprehend the mechanical properties of weld. Also, by carrying out the microstructure observation for laser and arc regions, microstructural properties were understood.
김종형 ( Jong Hyung Kim ),오지선 ( Ji Seon Oh ),김동민 ( Dong Min Kim ),허성재 ( Seong Jae Huh ),임경훈 ( Kyung Hun Lim ),도기원 ( Gi Won Do ),홍순형 ( Soon Hyung Hong ),최승원 ( Seung Won Choi ) 대한류마티스학회 2010 대한류마티스학회지 Vol.17 No.1
저자들은 심한 눈 주위 부종을 주소로 내원한 환자에서 루푸스 신염을 동반한 전신홍반루푸스로 진단된 환자 1예를 경험하였기에 이를 문헌고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다. Periorbital edema is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe here a patient with bilateral periorbital edema as a presenting symptom of SLE. A 23-year-old woman was admitted for a sudden onset of severe periorbital edema that developed 7 days previously. On the basis of the malar rash, arthritis of the right hand and left wrist, leukopenia, proteinuria and the positive anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies, she was diagnosed with SLE. Kidney biopsy revealed lupus nephritis (WHO class IV). After treatment with high dose of steroids, intravenous cyclophosphamide and daily hydroxychloroquine, her symptoms resolved, including the periorbital edema. She was discharged with prescriptions for prednisolone and hydroxychloroquine and she remains well.
The purpose of this study is to examine Arabic adjectives. As space of the study is very wide, we have concentrated on their forms and functions. Adjectives play an important role in the syntactic structures of sentences because they have an attributive and predicative functions. According to Arabian traditional classification, it is said that the adjective belongs to the noun class. By this, we divided the adjectives into five groups in light of their meanings or forms. During our study, we first learned how to form adjective through the morphemic analytic method in the following examples; relationship (including the names of places, tribes), adjectives from the plural nouns, loan words, adjectives only for woman, double adjectivization and adjectivization of compound nouns. Next we classified the functions by adjectives to predicative and attributive functions. We found that the functions of Arabic adjectives are the same as the functions of English adjectives and English adjectives. Finally, we concluded that Arabic language adheres to the modification of the pre-nominal pattern with the diverse modification forms aside from other languages.
It has been reported that good quality weld beads are not easily obtained during the $CO_2$ CW laser welding of primer coated plate. However, by introducing a small gap clearance in the lap position, the zinc vapor can escape through it and sound weld beads can be acquired. Therefore, this study examines for keyhole behavior by observing the laser-induced plasma and investigates the relation between keyhole behavior and formation of weld defect. Laser-induced plasma has accompanied with the vaporizing pressure of zinc ejecting from keyhole to surface of primer coated plate. This dynamic behavior of plasma was very unstable and this instability was closely related to the unstable motion of keyhole during laser welding. As a result of observing the composition of porosity, much of Zn element was found from inner surface of porosity. But Zn was not found from the dimple structure fractured at the weld metal. By analyzing of vaporizing element in laser welding, a component ratio of Zn was decreased by introducing a small gap clearance. Therefore we can prove that the major cause of porosity is the vaporization of primer in lap position. Mechanism of porosity-formation is that the primer vaporized from the lap position accelerates dynamic behavior of the key hole and the bubble separated from the key hole is trapped in the solidification boundary and romaines as porosity.
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The spatter and porosity could be occurred during CO₂ CW laser welding of Primer-coated steel for shipbuilding. This study has suggested an alternative idea by examining of weld-defect formation mechanism. The primer-coated plate induced the spatter, humping bead and porosity and these are main part of the welding defect, attributed to the powerful vaporizing pressure of primer attached on the base metal. The zinc of primer has a boiling point that is the lower temperature than melting point of steel. Zinc vapor will build up at the interface between the two sheets and this tends to deteriorate the quality of the weld by ejecting weld material from lap position or leaving porosity. Therefore introducing a small gap clearance in the lap position, the zinc vapor could escape through it and sound weld beads can be acquired. In conclusion, we suggested the occurred and prevented mechanism of weld defects with searching the factor.
Magnesium has been gained increased attention in recent years as a structural metal, especially in the automotive industry. These alloys have higher strength/weight ratio, heat conductivity and recyclability compare to other alloys. To fully benefit from the whole designing potential of this material, joining processes have to be developed. Laser welding turns out to be very suitable to join magnesium parts. Because laser welding allows, in comparison to conventional welding techniques like MIG and TIG welding, a low thermal load when joining the components. This paper presents the laser weldability of magnesium alloy by CW Nd:YAG laser. The mechanical properties of the joints are investigated, and the possibilities of industrial use are presented.
The purpose of this study is to examine the comparative study of Arabic and Hausa. This paper compared two languages because they have a lot of similarities in the view of the letters, phonemes and parts of speech. Arabic is one of the Semitic family, on the other hand Hausa is of the Chadic family in the classification of languages. But they are -in the broad sense- from Afroasiatic family. On the basis of the geographical site, Hausa was influenced by Arabic with the spread of Islam. To begin with, we found that there were the common 19 letters in two languages. But each of them has the unique 9 phonemes different from the other. As for the number of vowels, Hausa has more than Arabic. There are the singular, dual and plural conceptions in Arabic, but Hausa has the only singular and plural conceptions. In the classification of the gender, two languages accept commonly the masculine and feminine. Among the distinguished differences in two languages, Arabic has no possessive Pronouns. On the contrary, Hausa has them. In the case of verb, Hausa always should accompany the subject but Arabic verb has the hidden subject because the verb itself implies the subject. Also we found that that there were Arabic numbers in Hausa by Arabic for example 1 and 6 from the one and 20~90 from the ten units. Regarding to Adjective, it was proved that two languages share the grammatical features in the modification and the gender agreement; masculine and feminine.
The Basic Law of Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was promulgated in 1992 by the late King Fahd. Composed of 83 articles, it stipulates the nature and various functions of the Kingdom as most constitutions do, but it is never called a constitution, since the Quran and Sunnah are the constitution of the Kingdom. Indeed, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the Islamic state with the Quran and Sunnah as the fundamental law of the state. The Basic Law emphasizes the Islamic nature of the state, employing various Islamic religious expressions and espousing the Islamic rhetoric for justifying its monarchy. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the provenance of such religious terms in the Basic Law and discuss the role Islam plays in the raison d`etre and functioning of the Kingdom. In so doing, it attempts to show the Basic Law may not be able to meet the changing needs of the society, for it does not adequately deal with modern salient issues like democracy and human rights.
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This study aims to examine Korean educational institutions of the Arabic language and their development strategies of the Arabic language education. Arabic was first taught in 1965 at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, and currently five universities offer Arabic language training programs in Korea: Hankuk University of Foreign Studies; Myongji University; Pusan University; Chosun University; Dankuk University. In chapter 2, I deal with the history of Arabic education in secondary schools and universities, as well as the private academies. In chapter 3, I analyze the current situation of entrance quota for each university, the number of full time professors and curricula, revealing that universities focus more on Arabic language programs than on Arab regional studies subjects, although they show great interest in Arab regional studies. In conclusion I make some suggestions for developing Arabic language education in Korea as follows: (1) the development of common subjects; (2) Arabic listening and pronunciation practices; (3) Training of new teaching method; (4) team teaching; (5) Solidifying the studying Arabic abroad program through Arab countries embassies in Seoul; (6) Designation of Arabic zone. In order to put my suggestions in practice, it is imperative that various regulations and laws related to the second foreign languages education should be revised in the near future.