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중국 제1차 國共合作의 상징으로 1924년 중국 廣州에 건립된 黃포軍官學校는, 국민당과 공산당 군대 양측의 군사 지도자와 무수한 혁명가를 배출하였고, 동방의 여러 식민지·반식민지 국가의 청년들을 흡인하여 많은 인재를 길러냈다. 본고는 식민지기 韓人들이 황포군관학교에서 교육받은 사상적 영향과 인맥, 그리고 항일전쟁기까지의 한중연대 활동에 미친 영향에 대해 알아보았다. 황포군관학교는 이전의 군사교육기관과 달리 정치교육이 강화되었으며, 특히 周恩來가 정치부 주임으로 활동하면서 공산주의 세력이 증대하였다. 국민혁명시기 황포군관학교에 입교한 많은 韓人 청년들은 三民主義와 공산주의 이론을 학습하였고, 여러 정치활동에 참가하였다. 楊林 등 황포군관학교의 韓人청년들은 周恩來의 영향 하에 國民革命의 北伐뿐 아니라 공산주의 활동에서도 중요한 역할을 담당하였다. 1927년 제1차 國共合作이 결렬되면서 황포군관학교 한인 청년들이 중국공산당을 따라 중국국민당의 노선과 상반된 길로 나아가기도 하였다. 하지만 대부분 한인 입교생들은 國共合作에 기초한 민족협동전선 구축을 위한 진보적 혁명관을 형성하였고, 계급혁명보다는 國民革命 이념의 범주 안에 머물렀다. 대표적으로 의열단 단장이던 金元鳳은 단원들을 이끌고 黃포군관학교 제4기로 입교하여, 제국주의로부터 해방과 사회변혁을 위한 교육을 받고 졸업 후 중국의 國民革命에 동참하였고, 항일운동을 국공합작 이념에 바탕을 둔 민족협동전선 운동으로 발전시켜 나갔다. 황포군관학교 출신 韓人들은 김원봉과 같이 중국국민당과 연계를 가지면서 민족협동전선을 추구하였거나, 중국공산당에 참여하여 무장투쟁 전개하였거나, 모두 黃포군관학교에서 배운 군사기술과 정치사상, 인맥이 그들 활동에 큰 무기가 되었다. 1937년 7·7사변으로 중일전쟁이 폭발함으로써 제2차 國共合作이 이루어지자, 한중간 공개 항일연합전선이 결성되고 韓人 독립운동가들도 좌·우파가 연합하였다. 김원봉과 의열단 단원들은 황포군관학교 인맥을 배경으로 蔣介石으로부터 지원을 받아 1938년 조선의용대를 창건할 수 있었다. 또한 황포군관학교시기 周恩來를 매개로한 韓人청년들과 중국공산당과의 관계는 이후 1930년대 만주지역 韓人의 공산주의운동 및 延安 항일근거지 활동까지 이어졌다. 하지만 두 번째 국공합작도 결렬되면서, 중국의 국민당·공산당과 연대한 한인 혁명가들은 중국에서 민족협동전선을 수립하기 어려웠을 뿐만 아니라, 국민당과 공산당 측으로 나누어졌다. 黃포군관학교 출신 韓人혁명가들은 한중 연대활동에서 국민당과 공산당의 합작과 결렬을 반복적으로 경험하였고, 이 과정에서 국공 양측으로 갈라진 韓人들의 황포군관학교 인맥은, 1945년 해방 후 분단을 겪으면서 남북한으로 갈라지게 되었다. The Huangpu Military Academy was founded in Guangzhou in 1924 as a symbol of the 1st alliance between the Nationalist Party(Kuomintang) and the Communist Party of China. The school not only produced military leaders and numerous revolutionaries for both parties, but also educated young men from colonized and semi-colonized countries. This paper investigates the ideological influences and network of connections that the Huangpu Military Academy provided for Korean trainees and their effects on the Sino-Korean cooperation in anti-Japanese activism. Unlike previous military schools, the Huangpu Academy offered an extensive political education. With Zhou Enlai(周恩來) being the director of the politics department, the communist influence was particularly strong. Many young Koreans enrolling in the academy during the period of the Chinese Civil Revolution learned the Three Principles of the People(三民主義) and communism and participated in various political activities. Yang Rim(楊林) and other Koreans in the academy, under the influence of Zhou Enlai, played important roles in the northward expansion of the Civil Revolution as well as in communist activism. In 1927, in particular, when the 1st alliance was ruptured, some Koreans in the Huangpu Academy joined the Chinese Communist Party, separating their ways from the Nationalist line. However, most Korean students held a progressive view of revolution supporting the pan-Korean nationalist line based on the spirit of the alliance, and their political thoughts remained within the scope of the Civil Revolution rather than extended to encompass proletarian revolution. The head of the Uiyeoldan(lit. a band of righteous fighters), Kim Won-bong(金元鳳), for instance, was a prime example of Huangpu-educated Koreans. Leading the members of his Uiyeoldan, Kim joined the fourth batch of the academy and received the education on liberation from imperialism and on social revolution. After graduation, he participated in the Chinese Civil Revolution and developed the anti- Japanese movement into the pan-Korean nationalist movement. Some Huangpu-educated Koreans, along with Kim Won-bong, pursued the pan-Korean nationalist line, in liaison with the Chinese Nationalist Party, while others joined the Chinese Communist Party and their military resistance. Whatever their choice of the political line was, the military skills, political ideas, and personal connections acquired at the Huangpu became an important arsenal to young Korean fighters. As the July 7th Incident in 1937 exploded into the Sino-Japanese War, the 2nd alliance between the Nationalist and Communist Parties was launched. During the 2nd alliance, Koreans and Chinese formed a united front against the Imperial Japan, and Korean independent activists of left and right joined their forces. Kim Won-bong and his Uiyeoldan fighters, with support of Chiang Kai-shek(蔣介石), could inaugurate the Joseon Uiyongdae(trans. a corps of Korean volunteer fighters) in 1938. Meanwhile, the association between young Koreans and the Chinese Communist Party, mediated by Zhou Enlai, continued in the 1930s during the Korean communist movement in Manchuria and during the anti-Japanese campaigns in Yanan(延安). However, as the 2nd alliance fell apart again, Korean revolutionaries allying either with the Chinese Nationalists or with the Chinese Communists found it difficult to keep the pan-Korean line in China; eventually, they also split into Nationalist and Communist camps. Repeatedly experiencing the alliance and split between the Chinese Nationalist and Communist Parties while collaborating with Chinese, Huangpu-trained Koreans came to form different networks of people during their anti-Japanese campaigns in China. The different connections of people continued after its liberation and their return to the homeland in 1945.
Internet의 발달로 사람들은 정보를 쉽게 얻을 수 있을 뿐만 아니라 교환하고 유통할 수 있게 됨에 따라 컨텐츠 불법복제 문제를 야기 시키고 이로 인해 저작권 보호에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있다. VOD(Video On Demand)와 인터넷 방송과 같은 멀티미디어 상거래 또한 사용 권리를 가진 사용자만이 컨텐츠에 접근하고 이용할 수 있어야 한다. 본 논문에서는 MP4 기반 스트리밍 서비스 모델에 적용할 수 있는 DRM(Digital Rights Management) 시스템을 제시하여 이 DRM 시스템에 적용할 수 있는 MP4 암호화 알고리즘을 제안한다. Internet has made it easer to get information, also distribute and exchange it among people. It brings about issues regarding intelligent property and copyright threats. In a multimedia commerce such as video-on-demand, Internet broadcasting services, only users who have rights for use of these services should be able to access and watch those video or movies. In this paper, we propose DRM(Digital Right Management) system for MP4-based streaming and MP4 encryption algorithm for proposed DRM system.
The paper investigates China`s memory and commemoration of the Korean War with a focus on the Resist America and Assist Korea Memorial Hall and Martyr Cemeteries. China called the Korean War ‘Joseon War' at its outbreak, but with its entry into the war, it soon named the war ‘Resist America and Assist Korea War'. This name was more than a simple war slogan: it concerned key political, diplomatic, and military affairs pursued by China at that time, such as ‘Modernisation of the People's Libration Army, Development of Domestic Economy, Mass Mobilisation, Patriotic Spirit, and China`s position as a Great Power.' The Memorial Hall of Resist America and Assist Korea is the place where China`s official memory of the Korean War is most well-manifested. China has established not the ‘Resist America and Assist Korea War Memorial Hall' but the ‘Resist America and Assist Korea Memorial Hall'. This means, the memorial hall was founded not to commemorate the war itself but to celebrate the victory and achievements of military and economic development made during the country`s ‘Resist America and Assist Korea' efforts. Displaying narratives projected from the state`s official memory, the memorial hall is being used as a space to educate patriotism to the nation. Very few Korean papers so far have placed a focus on China`s Resist America and Assist Korea Memorial Hall, though it is China`s most representative official facility concerning the Korean War. To find what kind of memory that the hall exhibits and conveys, the present paper first investigates by whom, on what exhibition policy and process the ‘Resist America and Assist Korea Memorial Hall' was established, i.e. the mechanism whereby official memory of the ‘Resist America and Assist Korea' War has been formed and its exhibition policy. Next, the logic for the description of ‘Resist America' and ‘Assist Korea', grounds for the narrative of ‘victory' in the war of ‘justice', arguments China insisted at the armistice negotiation, and the problems in the armistice negotiation are examined. Lastly, the ‘Resist America and Assist Korea' movement and patriotism pursued by China in great extent are analyzed along with the heroism and patriotism strengthened through ‘memorial' activities performed at the memorial hall and martyr cemeteries. Every year, China commemorates the Korean War on October 25th, he date China entered the war and grabbed the first victory. This commemoration date reveals China`s perception of the Korean War, being on-going rather than being terminated and far from peace. The Martyr Cemeteries put emphasis on heroic actions that led battles to victory rather than honoring the deaths. It is hoped that the Resist America and Assist Korea Memorial Hall will be reconstructed as a word-class peace park, in the future, worthy of its establishment ideas of peace, victory, and brotherhood and of China`s elevated international status, and turns into a site of international research and exchange, acknowledging differences in war memories.
Whether there exist effective entry barriers or not in a certain industry is one of the crucial elements in the process of evaluating incumbents` market power in that market. The main purpose of this study is to draw competition-policy implications of entry/exit analysis in the rapidly changing telecommunications industry by surveying various sources of entry barriers and analyzing practical issues related to the way of assessing entry conditions. I critically review conflicts among various definitions of entry barriers in the literature of industrial organization in economics. Based on the theoretical findings, I suggest an eight-step procedure for assessing entry conditions of the telecommunication markets: (i) Market definition and entry by production substituters, (ii) Market conditions and historical entry, (iii) Assessment of absolute cost advantages and essential facilities, (iv) Assessment of sunk costs, scale economies, and capital requirements, (v) Assessment of product differentiation, advertising, switching costs, and network externality, (vi) Vertical foreclosure and exclusion, (vii) Predatory behaviors, and (viii) Assessment of entry impediments. At each step to evaluate the elements of entry barriers, the main characteristics of telecommunications industry are explicitly reflected. The main findings of this paper can be directly used to clarify and improve the legal clauses on market competition assessment in telecommunication laws in Korea.