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        • KCI등재

          충남방언 활용에서의 음성모음화

          김정태(Jeong-tae Kim) 어문연구학회 2006 어문연구 Vol.51 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          The vowel harmony is one of the phonological phenomena which is represented by connecting to similar series of vowels. In these days, this vowel harmony has remained as a type of fossilization in modern Korean. That is the "-아/어’ alternation, adverb conjunctive endings as a result of diachronic variation. This variation is regarded to diachronic vowel harmony and also is described as a kind of assimilation. However, Lee Byeong-geun(1976), Kim Ju-won(1999), Lee Mun-Gyu(2004) described that vowel harmony is not an assimilation in modern Korean any more. So this study assumed that there are positive and negative ending synchronically. That is, it is considered being fossilized as vowel harmony in diachronic phonology. For example, they have the formation like this: stem-final positive vowels of Korean verb "ㅏ, ㅗ + ending 아" and "negative vowels + ending 어". In fact, although /먹어/-〉*[머가] is not realized, /잡아/-〉[자버] is realized in modern Korean. That is, it has no variation in "negative vowels+negative vowels", but it has variation into "positive vowels+positive vowels" in "posive vowels+negative vowels". We intend to call this negative vowelization. The purpose of this paper is to propose that this negative vowelization could be one of characteristics in Chungnam dialect. We cannot see the negative vowelization in conjugation of "negative vowels+negative vowels". It shows us itself the realization of negative vowel forms in the formation like this: negative vowels + C]vst+어, such as "넘+어-〉[너머], 뜯+어-〉[뜨더]". The cases of ‘끄+어→[꺼], 서+어→[서], 가리+어→[개려]’ are under the circumstance of hiatus avoidance. There is no variation of negative vowel, only deletion and gliding are existed. In this paper, ‘아→어’ is negative vowelization. In "ending positive vowel + ending positive vowel" structure, "아’ changes to "어’. However, "가+아서→[가서], 빻+아→[빠:]’ is a deletion from hiatus avoidance phenomena. It turns out that hiatus avoidance is prior to negative vowelization. In case that final sound is a sonorant consonant as ‘갈+아→[가러], 말+아서→[마러서], 감+아→[가머], 많+아→[마너], 앓+았지→[아?찌]’, we can see negative vowelization like "아→어". At the same time, even in case that final sound is a obstruent like ‘옭+아서→[올거서], 솎+아서→[소꺼서], 맞+아→[마저], 쫓+아→[쪼처]’, vowelization is shown. This" 아-->어’ is very negative vowelization. Then, what is a mechanism of negative vowelization? Because bac k·low-vowel "/a/" is changed to back·middle-vowel "/?/", it could be named as a vowel rising in Korean vowel system. But, "아→어’ is not the Vowel rising in this case. According to Kim Jeong-tae(2003:57), vowel rising is a unconditional alternation which is not affected by adjacent sound. 아→어’ as a negative vowelization is a conditional alternation, because of stem positive vowel and word-final consonant, circumstance of ‘V+C+_____’. That is the reason we can say that ‘아→어’ negative vowelization is one of characteristics in Chungnam dialect, due to vowel rising of common pronunciation tendency in Korean. This paper analysed the only utterances of the old in rural area. Because generational and individual differences are existed in actual language use, negative vowelization is optionally applied to speakers of modern Korean.

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        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          Cross-sectional TEM Specimens Priparation of Precisely Selected Regions of Semiconductor Devices using Focused Ion Beam Milling

          김정태,김호정,조윤성,최수한,Kim, Jeong-Tae,Kim, Ho-Jeong,Jo, Yun-Seong,Choe, Su-Han 한국재료학회 1993 한국재료학회지 Vol.3 No.2

          A procedure for preparing cross-sectional specimens for transmission electron microscopy(TEM)by focused ion beam(FIB)milling of specific regions of semiconductor devices is outlined. This technique enables TEM specimens to be pripared at precisely preselected area. In-situ #W thin film deposition on the top surface of desired site is complementally used to secure the TEM specimens to be less wedge shaped, which is main shortcoming of previous FIB-assisted TEM sample preparation technique. This technique is quite useful for the TEM sample priparation for fault finding and the characterization of fabrication process associated with submicron contact technologies.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          고분자-계면활성제 혼합물에 의한 마찰저항 감소연구

          김정태,김철암,최형진,김종보,윤형기,박성룡,Kim, Jeong-Tae,Kim, Cheol-Am,Choe, Hyeong-Jin,Kim, Jong-Bo,Yun, Hyeong-Gi,Park, Seong-Ryong 한국재료학회 1998 한국재료학회지 Vol.8 No.2

          본 연구에서는 회전 원판 장치에 고분자-계면활성제의 혼합체를 첨가제로 사용하여 난류 유동장에서의 마찰저항 감소효과에 대해서 조사 연구하였다. 세가지의 분자량이 다른 PAA를 마찰저항 감소효과에 영향을 줄 수 있는 여러 인자들에 대헤서 살펴 보았다. 특히 이 연구에서는 이온성 고분자와 계면활성제의복합체가 마찰저항 감소현상에 어떠한 영향을 미치는 지에 대해서 연구하였다. 계면활성제와 고분자첨가제 사이의 형태학적 차이점에 특별한 관심을 가지고 실험을 하였으며 이온성 고분자의 pH에 대한 영향에 대해서도 조사하였다. 고분자와 계면활성제간의 복합체는 거대한 전해질과 같은 거동을 보이며 계면활성제가 고분자의 형태를 변화시켜 고분자의 크기를 확대시킨다. 따라서 이러한 복합체는 단일 고분자계와 비교해서 수력학적부피, 관성반경, 점도등의 값이 크게 나타나며 이렇게 팽창된 고분자는 난류 유동장에서의 마찰저항 감소효율을 증가시킨다. Drag reduction produced by dilute solution of water soluble ionic polymer-surfactant complex under turbulent flow in a rotating disk apparatus(RDA) was investigated in this study. Three different molecular weights of polyacrylic acid(PAA) were adopted as drag reducing additives, and distilled water was used as a solvent. Experiments were undertaken to observe the dependence of drag reduction on various factors such as polymer molecular weight, molecular expansions and flexibility, rotating speed of the disk and polymer concentration. Specific considerations were put on conformational difference between surfactant and polymer, and effect of pH on ionic polymer possessing various molecular conformation through pH. The complex of ionic polymer and surfactant(Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) behaves like a large polyelectrolyte. Surfactant changes the polymer conformation and then increases the dimension of the polymer. The radius of gyration, hydrodynamic volume and relative viscosity of the polymer-surfactant system are observed to be greater than those of polymer itself. Such surfactant-polymer complex has enhanced drag reduction properties.

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