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There are few studies about school-environment in relation to pupils’ respiratory health,and Korean school-environment has not been characterized. All pupils in 4th grade in 12selected schools in three urban cities in Korea received a questionnaire (n = 2,453), 96%participated. Gaseous pollutants and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were measured indoors (n =34) and outdoors (n = 12) during winter, 2004. Indoor dampness at home was investigated by the questionnaire. To evaluate associations between respiratory health and environment, multiple logistic- and multi-level regression models were applied adjusting for potential confounders. The mean age of pupils was 10 yr and 49% were boys. No school had mechanical ventilation and CO2-levels exceeded 1,000 ppm in all except one of the classrooms. The indoor mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3 and formaldehyde were 0.6 μg/m3, 19 μg/m3, 8 μg/m3 and 28 μg/m3, respectively. The average level of UFPs was 18,230 pt/cm3 in the classrooms and 16,480 pt/cm3 outdoors. There were positive associations between wheeze and outdoor NO2, and between current asthma and outdoor UFPs. With dampness at home, pupils had more wheeze. In conclusion, outdoor UFPs and even low levels of NO2 may adversely contribute to respiratory health in children. High CO2-levels in classrooms and indoor dampness/mold at home should be reduced.
여러 온도와 압력에서 벤젠의 점성도를 결정하여, 액체 벤젠의 점성도에 미치는 온도와 압력의 영향에 대하여 연구하였다. 여러 온도와 압력으로 유지되고 있는 일정한 밀도의 벤젠 속에서 공 낙하 시간을 측정함으로써 벤젠의 점성도를 산출할 수 있었다. 그 결과로부터 벤젠의 비부피에 미치는 온도와 압력의 영향, 자유부피에 미치는 온도와 압력의 영향에 대해서 알아보았으며, 결론적으로 벤젠의 점성도에 대한 온도와 압력의 영향을 온도와 압력의 변화에 따르는 자유부피의 변화에 의하여 고찰하였다. The viscosities of benzene have been determined at several temperatures and pressures to investigate the effect of temperature and pressure on the viscosity of benzene in liquid phase. When a falling ball viscometer with a constant volume contained a given amount of liquid benzene at desired temperatures and pressures, the viscosities of benzene in the viscometer could be evaluated from the measurements of the falling time of a skinker. The variations of the specific volume and the free volume of liquid benzene with temperature and pressure were, from the results, searched out. Finally, the effects of temperature and pressure on the viscosity of benzene were discussed by means of the variations of free volume with temperature and pressure.
여러 온도와 압력에서 이산화탄소 내의 카페인의 용해도를 측정함으로써 용해도와 이산화탄소의 밀도 사이의 관계를 간단한 식으로 니타낼 수 있었다. 이 식을 이용하여 이산화 탄소와 카페인 사이의 상호작용 비리알 계수를 결정하고, 이로부터 Lennard-Jones 퍼텐셜 함수의 파라미터를 결정하였다. The solubilities of caffeins in carbon dioxide could be measured at various temperatures and pressures to represent the relationship between the solubility and the density of carbon dioxide at desired temperature and pressure by means of a simple equation. This equation allow a calculation of the solubilities at higer and lower pressures. Using the equation, the interaction virial coefficient between carbon dioxide and caffeine has been determined to obtain the parameters of Lennard-Jones potential function for the system.
여러 온도와 압력에서 톨루엔의 점성도를 공낙하법에 의하여 결정하고 톨루엔의 점성도에 대한 온도 및 압력 의존성을 연구하였다. 톨루엔의 점성 흐름에 관한 엇갈림 변형력으로부터 엇갈림 자유 에너지, 엇갈림 엔트로피, 엇갈림 엔탈피 등을 정의하여 압력 변화에 따르는 열역학적 성질의 변화를 고찰하였다. 실험적으로 결정된 엇갈림 자유 에너지, 엇갈림 엔트로피, 엇갈림 엔탈피 등을 온도 상승에 의한 톨루엔 분자들의 열운동 효과와 압력 증가에 의한 밀도 증가 및 분자의 입체 효과에 의하여 설명하였다. Viscosities of toluene were experimentally determined by the falling-ball method at several temperatures and pressures to investigate the pressure and temperature dependence of the viscosity of toluene. With the shear stress of the viscous flow of toluene, the shear free energy, the shear entropy, and the shear enthalpy were defined to discuss the variations of the shear thermodynamic properties with pressure. The effect of temperature and pressure on the shear thermodynamic properties obtained experimentally can be explained by means of the molecular thermal agitation due to temperature incleasing and the steric effect of the closed molecules of to Iuene due to pressure elevation.
The solubility of caffeine in compressed carbon dioxide has been measured to determine its fugacity coefficient between 330 and 410 K up to 500 bar. The result allows the calculation of the thermodynamic excess functions such as the molar excess enthalpy, the molar excess free energy, and the molar excess entropy. The pressure variations of the molar excess functions of caffeine in the caffeine-CO2 mixture were discussed and also compared them with those in the caffeine-NH3 mixture.
이산화탄소 내의 바이페닐의 용해도를 측정한 자료로부터 인산화탄소의밀도와 바이페닐의 용해도 사이에 간단한 식으로 나타낼 수 있는 관계를 알아내었다. 이 관계식을 이용하여 여러 온도와 압력에서 이산화탄소 내의바이페닐의 용해도를 산출하고, 용해에 관한 열역학적 함수를 결정할 수 있었다. A simple relationship between the density of carbon dioxide and the solubility of biphenyl was obtained from the data of measured solubility of biphenyl in carbon dioxide. The equation of this relationship allows an estimation of the values of solubilities in that system at various temperatures and pressures to deternine the solution thermodynamic functions for the system.
여러가지 용매를 사용하여 특정 식물로 부터 유효성분을 추출하는 실험을 하였다. 용매의 종류에 따른 추출물의 산출량을 비교하여 용매의 추출 효과를 고찰하였고, 추출물의 TLC 분석에 의하여 식물로 부터의 유효성분 추출에 대한 용매의 질적 효과도 고갈하였다. Several solvent were used to examine the effects of solvent for the extraction of the useful components from plant materials. The percent yields of the extracts from solvent to solvent were compare to discuss the extraction abilities of the solvents. The qualities of the solvents for extracting the useful components from plant materials were also discussed by means of the quantitative TLC analyses.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mothers' attitudes toward corporal punishment and perception of child maltreatment of mothers with young children. The sample of this study were 5% of total research population, who were mothers with children aged three to five, attending public and private educare centers. Self-administered structured questionnaire method was employed. Data were analyzed with SPSS WIN statistical package, in detail, factor analysis, t-test, and correlation analysis methods were utilized. The results of this study were ; (1) Differences were found between mothers's attitudes toward corporal punishment according to the child's age and gender. (2) Mothers with children younger than 5years old were more alert on the issue of child maltreatment (physical & emotional) than those with children older than 6 years of ages. (3) Correlations were found between mothers' attitude toward corporal punishment & their perception of child physical & emotional maltreatment, the more generous the mothers' attitude toward corporal punishment, the lower their perception of child maltreatment. Mothers who live in the urban setting were more sensitive toward the issue of child maltreatment & corporal punishment.
Purpose: To make an anatomical evaluation of extraocular muscles, macular and optic nerve in enucleated eyes of live subjects and to compare the results with a previous autopsy study. Methods: Twenty-four surgically enucleated eyes were studied. The distance from the limbus to the muscle insertion site, muscle width, and the distance between muscle insertion sites were measured and compared with an Apt study. After an incision through the eyeball, a 26-gauge needle was passed perpendicularly through the macula to the sclera. We measured the distances between the oblique muscles and the macula and optic nerves from an external site of the eyeball. Results: The distance from the limbus to the muscle insertion site showed a significant difference in the superior and inferior rectus muscle. All measurements of muscle widths were significantly narrower than those of autopsy studies. The distances between the muscles were significantly closer between the lateral and superior muscles and between the superior and medial rectus muscles. From the optic nerve to the muscle was 3.99±0.62 mm, to the superior oblique muscle was 7.89±0.88 mm, to the inferior oblique muscle was 5.95±0.83 mm, and the macula to the inferior oblique muscle was 1.35±0.42 mm. Conclusions: Since most of the measurements were different from those of autopsy studies, we should consider the effects of preservation and fixation solution on autopsy eyes, race, and the differences among measurement instruments. J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 49(7):1159-1164, 2008