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Although aquaculture production rates grown over the years, aquatic animal diseases occur every year which causes substantial economic losses. When an aquatic animal is infected with an aquatic animal pathogen it is either incinerated or buried according to the aquatic life disease control act. Although these methods prevent the spread of disease, it is not environment friendly. Here, we developed an aquatic animal rendering equipment for disposal of fish waste which is environmentfriendly and efficient. Also, fertilizer components of fish waste were evaluated value for recycling. The mobile rendering equipment was designed for field operation and/or high temperature and pressure system, oil and water separator, and shredding drying apparatus. During the experiment (July-2016 to November-2016), a total of 53,824 kg fish waste was collected, and 29,216 kg compost of rendering by-product was made. Also, compost made from viral (Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infected fish did not reflect any detectable pathogen. The concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter in the fish waste compost were 2.17%, 26.98%, and 92.44%, respectively. The results suggest that fish waste used in this study was decomposed efficiently as per the official standard for fertilizer product. This equipment can be useful for efficient inactivation of the aquatic animal pathogenic agents and recycling of the fish waste in an environment-friendly manner.
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Diphtheria was the world-spread, respiratory infectious disease in the past. But after developing the diphtheria toxoid, diphtheria vaccine, composed of diphtheria toxoid, is generalized, so prevalence of diphtheria is sharply dropped. But diphtheria is come back in NIS(New Independent States) in 1990s. It is believed that recurrence of diphtheria is mainly due to shortage of protective diphtheria antibody titer in adults. And it is related to 70% prevalence in adults, not in children. Considering this changing environment, this study was designed to research the diphtheria antibody titer of whole population and existence of titer difference by sex. Also it was studied whether ELISA has fitness as determination method of diphtheria antibody titer compared with neutralization method on microcell culture. This study was done to 277 samples of three hospitals in Seoul area, and sera was tested by neutralization method on microcell culture and ELISA method. The results of this study were as follows 1) Of this studied population, 31.05% had an antibody titer below the protective level (<0.01 IU/ml), 40.79% had a titer of a relative degree of protection (0.01-0.09 IU/ml) and 28.16% had a reliable degree of protection ($\geq$0.1 IU/ml). Therefore, 68.95% had a basic protective antibody titer level. 2) 20-40 age group showed the lowest diphtheria antibody titer among the studied population. 3) GMT of diphtheria antibody titer was the highest in the children. But, after child period, GMT was fallen. Standard deviation value was the lowest in older group. 4) Protective level of diphtheria antibody titer of male was slightly higher than female (70.94% vs 66.66%). But this difference was not statistically significant. 5) Diphtheria antibody titer by ELISA method was wholly higher than by neutralization method on microcell culture. Compared the two results by ELISA and neutralization, the regression coefficient was 0.38. And in titer, which was obtained by ELISA method, false-positive results was abundant.