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An ISFET urea sensor was fabricated by immobilizing the urease using polyurethane on the H^+ sensing Si₃N₄ thin film of pH-ISFET. The sensor could determine the urea concentration 1∼50 mg/dl with fast response of 3∼5 min. and good repeatability. For its application to clinical analysis, the results of the urea measurements in blood plasma using ISFET urea sensor were compared with these of conventional Urease-Indophenol method.
Abstract Struggles between Earth Mothers and Patriarchal Society Uirak Kim (Busan University of Foreign Studies) Maxine Hong Kingston allows herself to present the reader what elements of what is learned and of how it is learned through her matrilineal society. She aligns herself matrilineally with her female ancestors and heritage. Struggles between her American self and the Chinese heritage her mother speaks of become her means for finding self-definition. She learns through her mother's talk-series; through her mother as example; and through her aunts' experiences. What she learns is that she is not a part of the culture that her mother comes from. The same rules do not apply to her reality. Through the transmission of stories of a remote heritage, her mother teaches Maxine strength and a sense of self. A big part of Kingston's sense of self as an American-born Asian, is to turn away from the rules and dictums of the ancient patriarchal society against which her mother, in her stories, fought. Just as her mother garnered strength in opposing that patriarchy, so too must Maxine find strength in opposing that which would oppress her: both the ghosts of her Chinese heritage and the mysterious ghosts of her American patriarchal reality. In a sense, the emerging identity of Maxine is one which is “other” than her mother and is “other” than Anglo-American. However, it is through her mother's contributions and presence that Maxine is able to identify and isolate just exactly what her particular identity is.
Salman Rushdie deals with the decolonization of the India subcontinent and the political debacle following in its wake on its wider historical context. He traces the origin of the imperial involvement in India that began centuries ago on its southern coast. Diaspora and imperialism often oppose each other in this book, these issues and their implications sometimes existing in an imbricating correlation. Since diaspora results in the dispersal of large communities, their arrival in a new land is thus an act of necessity than choice. But the sociopolitical reality of that country may render their role as imperialistic, especially if it is that of a compradore, as in the case of the spice traders in Cochin. Sharply divided in their opinions about their functions in the soon-to-be independent India, the da Gamas feel the need to define their identity and swear allegiance either to India or to the departing imperial power Britain. In Fanonian term, Bombay's invisible workers would be similar to the “lumpenproletariat” of Kenya, the landless peasants and the displaced workers, “the hopeless dregs of humanity, all who turn in circles between suicide and madness.” However, though The Moor's Last Sigh attests to Rushdie's dark vision of the reality of a postcolonial state, it also suggests a possibility of a better future. Therefore it should not be seen as an expression of absolute despair. The view that emerges of decolonization can be best summed up with Rushdies view on a comment from Gramsci's Prison Notebooks that he uses and quotes in part himself in his introduction to Imaginary Homelands to underscore the repressive nature of the politics of the eighties, a time when hope of change was not in sight. Therefore, there lies “hope to awaken, [be] renewed and joyful, into a better time.”
분자구조를 기술하는 molecular connectivity index, Wiener index 및 ad hoc descriptor와 알코올, 에스테르, 케톤 화합물들이 생체내에서 나타내는 enzyme inhibitory potency, lipoxygenase inhibition, tadpole narcosis potency, 증기독성(vapor toxicity), 증발열(heat of vaporization)과 같은 성질들 사이의 상관관계를 조사하였다. 생물학적 활성의 종류에 따라 molecular descriptor 사이의 우열은 있으나, 대체로 좋은 상관관계식을 얻었다. Various biological activities (enzyme inhibitory potency, lipoxygenase inhibition, tadpole narcosis, vapor toxicity and heat of vaporization) of molecules are correlated with molecular descriptors. The molecular descriptors used in this works are molecular connectivity index, Wiener distance index and ad hoc descriptor, which can encode information about branching, size, cyclization, unsaturation, hetero atom content and polarizability. It is found that calculated values from multiple regression equations are in a good agreement with experimental data on five biological activities of alcohol, ester and ketone compounds.
Achebe's novels collectively trace Nigerian social development from the arrival of the British to the first post-colonial political purges. They depict the breakdown of bureaucracy based on a new class system. They also show the pitfalls of reformers who put their own needs in front of concern for their cause. The purpose of this study is to examine two novels, Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease by Nigerian author Chinua Achebe, which highlight the transformation of individuals and their societies due to the impact of colonialism. In Things Fall Apart, clans of the past belonging to Achebe's own Igbo tribe see a decrease in their ability to maintain unity and order as the British influence increases. Behavior that serves both the individual and his community is replaced with self-serving behavior at the expense of the community. In No Longer at Ease, society has only vestigial forms of traditional values and corruption has become rampant. Each protagonist has personal interests that divert his attention away from community and ultimately prevent him from achieving success in his effort to improve society. The protagonists are connected through their efforts to halt the movement away from traditional values and towards selfish behavior. They also share a common failure to keep personal desire from interfering with the success of their causes. In addition, Achebe's novels show the difficulties faced by native Nigerians trying to take power in a bureaucracy with built-in corruption and no guidelines for new inductees. Furthermore, they show the danger of public apathy towards corruption and the excesses it can lead to.
The historical background of Buchi Emecheta's novel is very similar to that of Korean writers' novels. In particular, Emecheta presents the colonial and postcolonial history of Nigeria from an avowedly feminine perspective, thus calling attention to in the works of Korean writers. In both cultural and historical backgrounds, women are increasingly abused, manipulated and oppressed. They suffer from certain patriarchal aspects of both traditions, but they also undergo special difficulties that result from the difficult transition between the two that informs them contemporary historical context. Nevertheless they are able to assert their independence. The purpose of this paper is to compare the feminity and its role in both African and Korean literature. Like Korean writers, Emecheta's fiction grows out of many of the same events especially colonialism and its aftermath, although responds to these events from a slightly different point of view. Besides, both Korean writers and Emecheta also continue theme of oppression of women in traditional society and the modernization, especially in Emecheta, brought by colonialism introduces substantial complications into the picture that suggest certain potentially positive aspects of life in traditional society. Within the context of the oppression in traditional patriarchal society, both Korean writers and Emecheta explore the complex sexism in sensitive yet relatively accessible ways. Finally they also raise a number of fundamental questions about the role of women and the role of feminist criticism in the treatment of both literature.
Abstract The Dialogical Richness and Complex Intertextuality of Buchi Emecheta's Novels Uirak Kim (Busan University of Foreign Studies) The literature produced by Buchi Emecheta over the past quarter of a century is powerful, subtle, and ultimately hopeful without idealistic naivete. Those critics who have come to Emecheta looking for a Western-style feminist or a staunch African traditionalist have found the subtlety of her texts easily ignored, and the texts themselves, easily appropriated. They have done themselves and Emecheta's works a great disservice by reading their own ideological positions into the texts, which are dialogic and heteroglossic in the extreme. It is neither necessary nor advisable to read Emecheta's novels as straightforward tracts expounding upon the Position of the Author. By focusing on the dialogic richness and the aspects which reveal potential utopian energies, with the help of M. M. Bakhtin and Fredric Jameson, one can find much more of worth to say about these novels than a simple, finalizing statement of “What They Mean.” In fact, the dialogic relationship is far more complex, interesting, and productive than many unfortunate critics have allowed themselves to realize. Out of the interactions between the potentials of genuine cultural exchange and the horrors of imperial domination of African minds and bodies, Emecheta develops her own uniquely complex and cautious interrogation of the excesses of Western modernism and outdated traditional practices alike. Key Words: Postcolonialism, Buch Emecheta, Nigeria, Bahktin, Dialogism, Communalism/ 탈식민주의, 에메체타, 바흐친, 대화적 상상력 (투고일: 2006. 7. 25, 심사일: 8. 10, 심사완료일 8. 25)
Poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, HEMA)는 contact lens 재료물질로 사용되고, 물을 약 45퍼센트 포함하여 수화겔(hydrogel)을 만들 수 있는 고분자이다. Poly(HEMA)와 아미노산(alanine, arginine, methionine, proline, glycine, serine, lysine)과의 상호작용력을 DSC와 TGA 열분석법으로 측정한 결과 lysine, arginine, alanine의 결합성이 큼을 알 수 있었다. The interaction between poly(HEMA) which is material of contact lens containing about 45% water and amino acids (alanine, arginine, methionine, proline, glycine, serine, lysine) have been studied by using the thermal analysis methods through DSC and TGA. The experimental results of DSC and TGA were shown that lysine, arginine and alanine have the most stable interaction between poly(HEMA) and amino acids.
The various types of enzyme have been coupled to ion-selective electrodes for the development of enzyme membrane electrodes. The tissue and organ of animals and plants contained a lot of variant enzymes. A bioselsoective membrane electrode which employs slices of Wistar rat liver was studied that the effect of pH, kinds and concentration of buffer solution, temperature and thickness of slice in order to optimize electrode response. The longstability, the response time and slope of wistar rat tissue glutamine selective membrane electrode was evaluated.
The adjective "African" itself is not as easy to define as might first appear. Africa, unlike nations which is really a peninsula on the western side of Korea, is at least a well-defined geographic continent. But the role of the African novel in the restoration it has also been the object of a long Western tradition of imaginary constructions that have greatly distorted our perception of the continent, often in harmful and negative ways. Indeed this tradition of imaginary misrepresentation is oneo f the greatest obstacles that must be overcome by students who approach African culture for the first time. From this context, this paper is making an effort to introduce a certain kind of communal aspiration of a society through Aye Kei Arma's works Fragments. In this works, moral degradation and social demolition pop up in almost every corner of society, there are certainly a sense of recovery based on communalism. On top of that, African history and culture gives African literature a relevance and vitality that Western and Oriental readers should find exciting. Moreover, the obvious importance of African literature to the social and political world of Africa serves to demonstrate the overall social and political importance of literature. The obvious importance of literature to the social and political world of Africa can teach us valuable lessons about the social and political relevance of literature in general.