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This article consists of five Chapters. Chapter Ⅰ describes the requirements of the environmental impact assessment system for the soundest protection of the environment from contemination and advocates the use of the case study approach for the exposition of such a system. Chapter Ⅱ deals with conceptional matters related to environmental impact assessment in the U.S. The American legal system of environmental impact assessment is an attempt to evaluate the consequences of a proposed action through several descriptors in the environmental inventory. Under the terms of CEQ guidelines, an environmental impact statement must include the followings; one, a comprehensive technical description of the proposed actions; two, an analysis of the probable impact of the proposed action on the overall environment, including impact on the ecological system, land use and development patterns, community and social organization, and relevant quality of life indicators; three, a description of any probable adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided or which can be reduced in severity to acceptable levels; four, studies and descriptions of possible alternatives to the recommanded course of action and their environmental effects; and five a detailed consideration of any irreversible or irretrierable commitments of scarce environmental resources. This chapter also mentions certain deficiencies in the EIS. Among the several areas in the EIS process requiring attentions are the procedures for impact statements on federal permit actions, which currently present difficult problems-of timing, intergovernmental coordination, and scope. Chapte Ⅲ enxmines the judicial basis for the American environmental assessment system from four perspectives: the judicial standing of invironmental issues; second, just exactly what proposed actions are in fact, subject to environmental impact statements; third the contents of environmental impact statements, and fourth, the question of who pays the costs of environmental impact assessments. Chapter Ⅳ contains the author's comments on American judicial findings as regards environmental impact assessment, emphasizing two main points: one, despite the efforts of lower courts to broaden the scope of its judicial standing, the Supreme Court has consistently rejected such findings; and two, the subject, contents and timing of environmental impact assessments are sharply delimited by the courts, in accordance with NEPA guidelines. Chapter Ⅴ contains the author's summary conclusions, as follows: one, American judicial judgment is an important, meaningful guidepost for other nations, including Korea; two, judicial standing is a key aspect of judicial review so it is better if it is broader; and three, it is necessary to modify the Korean legal system with regard to environmental impact assessment along American judicial lines.
Background : For evaluating the work load for medical residents, it is important to search the work hour and sleep status. The purpose of this study was to find out the sleep status of residents in neurology department in Korea. Methods : We recruited neurological residents of 12 University hospitals. They completed questionnaires including their sleep and work hours, sleep habit, Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), health problem and so on. Results : We excluded the residents who were diagnosed sleep disorder in history. One hundred three residents (male: 67, female 36) were analyzed. Average sleep duration on off duty days was 5.8 ± 0.9 hours, on duty days was 4.6 ± 1.3 hours and mean work hours was 14.6 ± 2.3 hours. Average SSS score was 2.6 ± 1.0 and ESS was 10.6 ± 5.1. Group analyzed by resident grade showed short sleep duration in first and second grade on duty days. ESS score was higher in first and second grade than other grades. Conclusions : Most neurological residents were suffered from sleep deprivation especially first and second grade on duty days. They also feel sleepiness drowsiness during a daytime.
In this study, the antimicrobial effects of an onion peel extract prepared using subcritical water extraction (SWE) were assessed for possible development into new bio-functional materials. The extraction temperatures were controlled to 110 and 160^oC. At 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg extract/mL of broth, the growth inhibition and bactericidal activity of SWE extracts against Bacillus cereus KCCM 40935 and KCCM 11341 were compared with those of ethanol and hot-water extracts. In the case of B. cereus KCCM 40935, it appeared that over 0.6 mg/mL of SWE (110^oC) extract exerted a bactericidal effect, and 1.2 mg/mL of SWE (160^oC) extract exerted a bacteriostatic effect during culturing, and also that B. cereus KCCM 11341 was more resistant than B. cereus KCCM 40935. Furthermore,our results demonstrated that the death time of 107 CFU/mL of B. cereus KCCM 40935 treated with SWE (110^oC)extract at 1.2 mg/mL was 60 min at maximum in 0.8%NaCl. Additionally, the cells damaged by SWE extract were observed with a SEM. It was suggested that an extract of onion peels prepared via SWE (110^oC) could be used as a functional biomaterial for the food or pharmaceutical industries.