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In the history of English poetry(and Korean poetry as well) we can distinguish two kinds of poetry: Conventional and realistic poetry. They are distinct in their basic assumptions about the nature of poetry and also in their poetic structure. The Romantic Movement in the early nineteenth century roughly serves as the watershed that divides the two periods when these two types of poetry prevailed respectively, but the seventeenth century rather belongs to the period of realism. In Korea, sijo is a kind of conventional poetry. The assumption in the one is that poetry is composition or imitation and that its business is to create a directly apprehensible surface beauty, with little or no realistic considerations, according to the rules set forth by certain definite conventions of literary genres, while the other assumes that poetic process is essentially an act of discovery, and clarification of reality. As the basic assumptions are different, so poetic structure differs. In the conventional poetry, imagery is there to create either pictorial or rhetorical beauty, and, consequently, its structure is synthetic. The basic structural principle of a poem is usually rhetorical syllogism or temporal procession. And the rhetorical structure is essentially keyed to the expression of what might be called public or communal emotion, thus making it ineffective for the experssion of private or personal emotion, which is the emotion usually expected in lyric poetry. Meanwhile, the function of imagery in the realistic poetry is to clarify, and, consequently, its structure is analytical. The imagistic or spatial structure is, as the organizing principle of a poem, most appropriate in the realistic kind of poetry. The difference in the basic assumptions and structure is closely bound up with the difference in their social and intellectual backgrounds. Conventional poetry seems to flourish when the accepted world picture is based on the idea of the rule of universal law. The business of poetry is, in such a time, conceived to be that of furnishing convincing arguments for the harmonious relation maintained between the universal order and concrete poetic experiences. The focus of attention is not on the content and nature of such experiences nor on the validity of the accepted Weltanschauung. Owing to this necessity, consciously felt or not, for the reaffirmation of social values in terms of a universal law, and also to the homogeneity of culture in such a world, poetry comes to have syllogistic or temporal structure which has a relatively open frame of reference. At the decadence of the world of universal order, on the other hand, poetry feels the need for a close re-examination of the reality, heretofore taken for granted uncritically, and tries to express its poetic experience without relating it to a system of universally valid principles outside the autonomous unity of a poem. Thus it becomes realistic and comes to have the imagistic and spatial structure with a closed frame of reference.