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본 논문에서는 Falb and Wolovich와 Gilvert가 제시했던 decoupling 문제에 있어서 그들이 취했던 논리전개방법을 수학적으로보다 간명하고 엄밀하게 취급했으며 또 그들이 생략했던 증명문제들을 완전히 하여 놓았다. 특히 Gilbert가 도입했던 F-invariance나 Integratop decoupled system과 같은 개념을 고려하지 않아도 꼭같은 결론을 얻을 수있음을 보였다. This paper treat the decoupling problem, which was considered by Falv and Wolovich and Giverts, more explicityly and rigorously in mathematical standopoint than they had taken and completes the proofs which they had pmitted in the development of the theory. In particular, we show that th same results can be pbtained without introducing the notion such as F-invariance or Integrator decoupled systems which was originally proposed by Gilbert.
Current rapid-screening methods, such as the Screening Phase of FEMA 310 and the First Level Procedure in Japanese Standard, have been developed to evaluate seismic capacities of a large number of existing buildings in a short time. Therefore, if the rapid-screening methods can screen out existing safe buildings reasonably, these methods will be useful strategy including economical aspects. In the current methods, however, the seismic capacities of reinforced concrete(RC) buildings controlled by both shear and flexure have not been fully discussed, also these are mainly focused on the strength capacity to withstand earthquake motions without demand for ductility. The purpose of this study is to propose a new rapid-screening method for more reasonably evaluating the seismic capacities of low-rise RC buildings. In this study, the equations of damage judgement and seismic capacity evaluation for quantitatively estimating the seismic performance were developed. In order to investigate a practical applicability of the proposed method, on the other hand, seismic capacities of two RC building examples including a pure frame and a frame with shear walls are evaluated based on the proposed method.
The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of various factors on energy consumption of apartment buildings. Energy consumption data of the Green Together, integrated building energy management system maintained by the government were used, and end-use and primary energy consumption data of 2012 were analyzed for 181 apartment complexes completed between 2004 and 2011 in Seoul. Energy consumption by use, source and heating type were analyzed. Then, energy consumption trends were analyzed and suggested according to energy efficiency ratings, number of households, areas for exclusive use, number of floors, core types, building types, orientations and completion years.
Remodeling for an aged building is emerging as a potential alternative toward a long service life of the building. However, unsuitable remodeling which does not review important factors on the remodeling causes to inefficiency in view of LCC. Some elements, components and/or equipments of an aged building were seriously deteriorated for its' age because of the poor maintenance and operation for them. Therefore, it is demanded for remodeling at the right way and process to lengthen the service life of the aged buildings. The purpose of this study is to suggest a decision procedure and method for a priority of remodeling. The procedure and method lead the required remodeling for a deteriorated building to be carried out reasonably within the budget. The primary factors critical to the priority decision making of the remodeling are obtained through the literature review, survey with relevant experts, and so on. Selected factors are 'importance degree of a remodeling activity', 'deteriorated level of the remodeling activity', and 'user's(or dweller's) priority requirement of remodeling'. The priority decision making for remodeling begins with breakdown the whole remodeling works into activities, and then multiply each other by current degree or level of the above mentioned 3 factors for every remodeling activities. The activity having the least score is the first candidate for remodeling.
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In this study, First, the results of travel-time inversion (first arrival inversion using the travel-time of the first arrival) were compared with those of full-wave inversion for numerical data. Numerical experiments to find key parameters other than initial velocity model showed that the frequency of source has a great effect on the result of full-wave inversion. Finally, this research presented the corrected full-wave inversion applying the correction term to the final result of full-wave inversion. The corrected full-wave inversion depicted cavities inside concretes even when the inversion started with 20% error in an initial velocity model for cavities. However, full-wave inversion did not reveal cavities.
C-4位가 置換되지 아니한 數種의 1-히드록시 피라졸과 1-히드록시 피라졸 2-옥사이드를 沃素나 當量의 N-클로로숙신이미드(NCS), N-브로모숙신이미드(NBS)등과 反應시켜 이들의 4-할로 誘??體들을 良好한 收率로 合成하였다. 또한 二當量의 NBS나 NCS 또는 t-부틸하이포클로라이트와 反應하여 4,4-디할로-4H-피라졸 1-옥사이드나 1,2-디옥사이드들을 生成物로 얻었다. 3,5-디페닐 피라졸을 二當量의 t-부틸하이포클로라이트로 處理하여 1,4-디클로로 -3,5-디페닐피라졸을 얻었는데 이 化合物은 쉽게 4,4-디클로로-3,5-디페닐-4H-피라졸로 轉位하였다. 銀이온 存在下에서의 加溶媒分解反應으로 4,4-디클로로-4H-피라졸은 4-클로로-3H-피라졸 誘??體로 變化하였다.