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Like vertebrates, insects synthesize various eicosanoids after the committed catalytic step of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ). However, the subsequent biosynthetic steps exhibit some deviation from those of vertebrates. Due to little composition of arachidonic acid in insect phospholipids, PLA 2 releases linoleic acid, which is another polyunsaturated fatty acid and relatively rich in insect phospholipids, to synthesize arachidonic acid via chain extension and desaturation. Resulting arachidonic acid is then oxygenated into a prostaglandin (PG), PGH 2 , by a specific peroxidase called peroxynectin, but not by cyclooxygenase. PGH 2 is then isomerized to various PGs such as PGA 2 , PGD 2 , PGE 2 , PGI 2 , and a thromboxane (TXB 2 ). All four epoxyeicosatrienoic acids such as 5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET are also synthesized from arachidonic acid by oxygenation of vertebrate types of monooxygenases. However, the other type of eicosanoids called leukotrienes are found in insect tissues but their synthetic pathway is unclear. Eicosanoids mediate various insect physiological processes such as metabolism, excretion, immunity, and reproduction. Thus, identification of novel compounds interrupting eicosanoid biosynthesis would be a novel approach to develop insecticides. This review focuses on PGs and their immune mediation. 척추동물과 유사하게 곤충도 인지질분해효소(phospholipase A 2 )의 촉매 작용으로 다양한 아이코사노이드를 합성한다. 그러나 일련의 아이코사노이드 생합성과정은 척추동물과 차이를 보이는데, 이는 곤충의 인지질에는 전구물질인 아라키도닉산의 함량이 낮기 때문이다. 대신에 비교적 풍부하게 존재하는 다가불포화지방산인 리놀레익산을 기반으로 사슬 연장 및 불포화반응으로 아라키도닉산을 합성하여 척추동물과 같이 아이코사노이드 전구물질로 이용하는 것 같다. 이렇게 해서 형성된 아라키도닉산은 다시 척추동물의 cyclooxygenase와 유사한 peroxynectin이PGH 2 형태의 프로스타글란딘(prostaglandin: PG) 전구물질을 형성하게 된다. 이후 여러 이성체 효소들의 특이적 반응에 의해 PGA 2 , PGD 2 , PGE 2 , PGI 2 , TXB 2 의 다양한 PG가 생성된다. 반면에 또 다른 형태의 아이코사노이드인 에폭시아이코사트리에노익산(epoxyeicosatrienoic acid: EET)은 척추동물과 유사한 단일산화효소의 산화반응으로 아라키도닉산을 전구물질로 5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, 14,15-EET를형성하게 된다. 그러나 세 번째 아이코사노이드 부류인 류코트리엔(leukotriene)의 경우 곤충 체내 존재는 확인되었지만 생합성 과정은 아직 밝혀지지 않았다. 이들 아이코사노이드가 곤충의 대사, 배설, 면역 및 생식에 관여하는 생리작용을 중개한다. 따라서 아이코사노이드 생합성 과정을 교란하는 물질 탐색은 새로운 살충제 개발 전략이 된다. 본 종설은 이 가운데 PG의 곤충 면역 중개 기작을 소개한다.
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The striped fruit fly, Zeugodacus scutellata, exhibits generation overlap due to its relatively long lifespan. This study clarified the fly generations by age-grading technique and traced migration of local populations using genetic markers. Male adults were monitored using Cue-lure in two different places (Andong and Guri) of mainland Korea during the entire host cultivating period. They showed two occurrence peaks (from late July to early August and from mid-August to mid-October). A developmental model of Z. scutellata using rate summation method predicted four generations during this period. Pterin amounts in fly heads increased with adult age and indicated at least 3 cycles of age variation during the occurrence period with an additional adult generation after the third cycle. The additional peak was supported by field monitoring using protein diet supplemented with terpinyl acetate, which showed an additional occurrence peak during October. These seasonal populations were monitored through their migration by gene flow analysis using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In each locality, three seasonal populations at July, August, and September were discrete. Although local populations were genetically discrete at July, they were not separate at late seasons except for Jeju populations. These results indicate the usefulness of the head pterin quantification in age-grading of adult populations and suggest that Z. scutellata occurs at least four generations a year. In addition, gene flow analysis using RAPD suggests frequent movements among local populations along with season progression.
Does foreign direct investment (FDI) promote or hinder good governance in a host state? In this article, I analyze the effects of FDI on subnational-level corruption across 63 provinces in Vietnam and find that FDI has both promoted and hindered control of corruption. Initially, FDI creates resources and incentives to improve governance and reduce corruption for early winner provinces. Yet, once FDI begins to pour in, different dynamics start to take effect. While the resources and incentives accrued to FDI-recipient provinces become less effective in further curbing corruption as more FDI flows in, FDI provides leaders of those provinces with growing opportunities and increased abilities to seek and pursue rents, leading to a prevalence of corruption. Using both qualitative and quantitative data, I find strong evidence that the control of corruption is weakest at the extremes: in provinces with the least and the most FDI.
This study aims to provide necessary, basic data for future space planning of rural housing through a survey on the size of residential space and space utilization of rural housing. To this end, this study analyzed the size and space of rural houses in actual use, and also analyzed the size and characteristics of the essential space for life, which were collected via a survey. In particular, Usan Village in Jangheung, where various types of houses and renewed houses coexist due to continued changes in the form of traditional villages, was selected for a target site of this study. In next step, this study analyzed the current status of use of each house in the village and compared the size of each space and the characteristics of space utilization. The results of the survey on Usan village, on where divergent traditional and modern houses are located, are as follows. First, Usan Village has total 31 traditional and modern houses. Most of the houses have been aging and formed into old-age households, and the expansion, renovation, and construction of farmhouses have progressed. Second, the population of Usan Village has decreased, and the number of residents per household is currently 1.4. Third, the survey indicates that the flat area of rural houses was 80.6㎡, the average area of living space was 54.1㎡, and the average area of water storage space was 26.5㎡, and the main living area was changed to water storage space due to the decrease in the number of household members in rural areas.
While international and domestic economic factors influence a government’s willingness and ability both to accrue and to pay off sovereign debt, political institutions also play an important role. We present an analysis of the effects of political institutions on foreign-debt buildup and reduction in developing countries. Our findings show that the degree of centralization of power, whether through presidential systems, unified governments, or the lack of a federal or otherwise decentralized system, is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, governments in such systems are more likely to indulge in debt expanding spending sprees, particularly left leaning governments, during election years, in more democratic states. On the other hand, governments with more centralized power are better able to cut spending and reduce debt, particularly those operating within more authoritarian political institutions. Overall, our findings imply that centralized power in the hands of a national executive in a highly democratic setting is more likely to lead to rapid foreign debt buildup, yet executives in such settings are often unable to take the drastic measures needed to reduce debt in times of imminent crisis. In short, political institutions impact both debt buildup and debt reduction.
필름을 사용하지 않는 방사선투과검사 시스템인 1차원 Radiometric scanning system을 개발하여 부식 및 침적물이 있는 배관의 두께평가에 적용해 보았다. 개발된 시스템은 단일 방사성 동위원소에서 나오는 방사선을 선형으로 접속하여 시험체를 투과시킨 방사선을 한개의 섬광형 검출기인 BGO를 사용하여 검출하는 single source - single detector alignment system을 제어하는 기계주사 시스템과 제어 프로그램을 개발하였다. 개발된 시스템의 성능을 GEANT4 프로그램을 사용하여 예측하여 보았다. 그리고, 인공결함을 제작하여 넣은 시편과 두께 변화를 준 시편에 적용하여 실제 성능을 평가하였다. 이 시스템은 방사성 동위원소를 이용하여 배관의 부식과 침적물에 의한 두께 변화에 대하여 실시간으로 필름을 사용하지 않고 평가할 수 있는 가능성을 알 수 있었다. One dimensional Radiometric scanning was fabricated and tested as a filmless radiographic inspection system, which could be applied to the evaluation of the corrosion and deposits in the pipeline. This system is composed of the single radioactive source of the collimated focusing beam, and single scintillation detector of BGO, and the mechanical scanning system to transport and align the source and detector, and the operating software to automatically control the mechanical scan system. The performance of the system was simulated using GEANT4 software. This system is applied to one specimen having an artificial flaw(flat bottom hole) in the pipe and other specimen with thickness variation. For the inspection by using the radioactive source in the pipeline, it is possible to evaluate the corrosion and deposits in real time and without film.
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