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The purpose of this study was to test a contigency model suggesting that the relationship between preparatory information about sensation and pain is contingent upon the level of physical - danger trait anxiety. The study done in Korea with Korean patients was a replication of a study done in the United States. This study reviews three major theories : pain theory, anxiety theory and the S-O-R(stimulusorganism -response) model. Contemporary Gate Control Theory of pain recognizes that psychological variables play an important role in pain experience. Anxiety theories suggest that anxiety has two types (trait and state) and multi dimensions (physical -danger, ego-threat, and ambiguous situation). The S-O-R model suggests that human responses to internal or external stimuli are mediated to a great extent by perceptual processes. The literature on preparatory information and anxiety, and anxiety and pain offers two conclusions. First, the relationship between preparatory information about sensation and state anxiety is contingent upon physical danger trait anxiety. Second, state anxiety is interfaced directly with and is positively related to pain. Integrating the three major areas reviewed and the two conclusions drawn from the literature, a contingency model was developed that suggests that the effect of preparatory information about sensation on clinical pain is adverse to patients with high physical-danger trait anxiety, but favorable to patients with low physical-danger trait anxiety, Three steps were taken to test the contingency model. First, data to test the model were gathered from eighty six major surgical patients at one metropolitan university hospital in Seoul, Korea. Forty - three were assigned to the experimental group and forty -three to the control group. In the evening before surgery, a 15-item physical - danger trait anxiety scale was administered to all patients under study. In addition, those in the experimental group were given preparatory information about sensation by a tape recording. Then, during the evening of the day after surgery, pain was measured in all patients. Second, a composite measure of pain was developed from eleven pain variables by means of a data reduction technique (principal component analysis), and item analysis and reliability tests were undertaken for the physical-danger trait anxiety scale in order to strengthen subsequent data analysis, Finally, the data were analyzed to test the model. The results of the analysis support the two hypotheses that constitute the contingency model. Among patients who have high physical -danger trait anxiety, those who were given preparatory information about sensation showed higher pain scores than those who were not given preparatory information. Among patients who have high physical -danger trait anxiey, those who were given preparatory information about sensation showed lower pain scores than those who were not given preparatory information. The results conclusively support the contigency model. The findings of the study offer several implications for research, theory-building, and nursing practice. First, pain can be measured in a more accurate fashion than the way previous pain studies have done. Principal component analysis is a useful technique available to develop a multiple measure of complex variables. Second, theories from other disciplines are helpful in developing a research that has direct importance in nursing. Third, the findings not only improve contemporary pain theory, but also contribute to building a pain care theory. Fourth, a contingency approach appears to be promising in research and theory building. This is a way to bring concern for "the patient as a person" into the research picture. Fifth, the nurse can provide a useful pain care intervention. The nurse preoperatively determines the physical -danger trait anxiety score of admitted surgical patients and provides preparatory information about sensation to those who have low physical -danger trait anxiety. But the nurse should not provide such information to those who have high physical -danger trait anxiety. Finally, the results of this study was consistent with those of the earlier study in the United States.
The global obesity epidemic and associated metabolic diseases require alternative biological targets for new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we show that a phytochemical sulfuretin suppressed adipocyte differentiation of preadipocytes and administration of sulfuretin to high fat diet-fed obese mice prevented obesity and increased insulin sensitivity. These effects were associated with a suppressed expression of inflammatory markers, induced expression of adiponectin, and increased levels of phosphorylated ERK and AKT. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of sulfuretin in adipocytes, we performed microarray analysis and identified activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) as a sulfuretin-responsive gene. Sulfuretin elevated Atf3 mRNA and protein levels in white adipose tissue and adipocytes. Consistently, deficiency of Atf3 promoted lipid accumulation and the expression of adipocyte markers. Sulfuretin’s but not resveratrol’s anti-adipogenic effects were diminished in Atf3 deficient cells, indicating that Atf3 is an essential factor in the effects of sulfuretin. These results highlight the usefulness of sulfuretin as a new anti-obesity intervention for the prevention of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases.
In this paper, we propose a CNN-based real-time grasping point detection algorithm using RGB-D images. Grasping point detection is a technique that determines where and how a robot should grab an object to lift it stably, this makes it quite unlike simple object detection. If the grasp is unstable, due to a poor choice of location, it is easy to drop the object when the robot lifts it and therefore the robot may fail to complete the requested task. As such, accurate and stable grasping point detection is essential for the robotics industry. Also, we introduce a fast measurement algorithm based on the rectangle metric for the quantitative evaluation of the grasping point detection technique. The proposed algorithm is able to search for grasping points on objects with complex shapes as well as simple ones by using neural network learning rather than simple image processing. 본 논문에서는 RGB-D 이미지를 활용한 CNN 기반의 실시간 파지점 탐색 알고리즘을 제안한다. 파지점 탐색이란 로봇의 손으로 물체의 어느 지점을 잡았을 때 안정적으로 물체를 들어 올릴 수 있는 지 결정하는 기술로 단순한 이미지 내의 물체 탐지 기법과는 차이가 있다. 파지의 위치가 불안정할 경우 로봇의 손으로 물체를 들어 올리는 과정 중 물체를 떨어뜨리거나 동작을 수행할 수 없는 경우가 발생하기에 정확하고 안정적인 파지점 탐색이 필요하다. 인식된 물체의 사전 정보 없이 주어진 RGB-D 영상으로부터 파지점을 탐색하며, 파지점 탐색 알고리즘의 정량적인 평가를 위해 빠른 Rectangle Metric 측정 알고리즘을 제안한다. 본 논문에서 제안하는 알고리즘은 통해 이미지 처리가 아닌 학습을 통한 인경신경망 모델을 사용함으로서 단순한 형태의 물체뿐만이 아닌 복잡한 형태의 물체의 파지점 탐색까지도 가능하다.
Owing to the merit of making simple payments on/offline through the simple authentication process, the interest in the mobile easy payment service is rising in the world, and companies are providing the mobile easy payment service. Thus, this study aims to understand the factors for consumers’ continuous use of mobile easy payment with the use of expectation-confirmation model. This study drew hypotheses by reviewing the preceding researches on the characteristics of easy payment service and the expectation-confirmation model. The reliability and validity of the collected survey data were reviewed by using the SPSS 22.0 & AMOS 22.0, and the hypotheses were verified. First, the characteristics of easy payment service had significant effects on the usefulness. Second, the confirmation had significant effects on the usefulness and satisfaction. Third, the usefulness, satisfaction, and intention to continuously use showed significant effects on each other. Lastly, there were moderating effects in accordance with the technology readiness.
This research is a rapid lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on colloidal gold for detection of melamine. Melamine is an organic compound, often used with formaldehyde to produce melamine resins due to its high nitrogen levels. Furthermore, it can cause renal failure. Generally used analysis methods for the detection of melamine such as LS/MS, GC/MS. Even though these methods have high selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy, are need to high cost and sample pretreatment procedure. In this study, the LFA technique gives many advantages such as the cost-effectiveness, rapid detection, and so on. As well as this LFA biosensor can be possible to confirm the red line to the naked eye because of using colloidal gold. As a result, this sensor is not only rapid detection of melamine, but also can be melamine detection in infant formula. LFA biosensor of this research is expected as an analysis method for early detection of melamine due to the simplicity and speed of the detection process.
This research is the development of rapid lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strip based on colloidal gold for the detection of histamine. Histamine is one of the important organic compound, but it is well known factor to cause an allergy and inflammation-like food poisoning. Generally used analysis methods for the detection of histamine such as LS/MS, GC/MS, Raman analysis, and near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy. Even though these methods have high selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy, are need to high cost and sample pretreatment procedure. So, in this study, LFIA technique gives many advantages such as the cost-effectiveness, rapid detection, and so on. As a result, this sensor is not only rapid detection of histamine, but also can be histamine detection in fish and fish product. LFIA strip of this research is expected as an analysis method for early detection of melamine due to the simplicity and speed of the detection process.