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This paper examines the factors affecting wage differentials for non-regular and regular works by union, using Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. According to the results of this study, the labor market for people with form of employment is divided into several part. The problem of non-regular workers in korea has begun as the enterprises asserted the strategy of flexibility of employment and deepened since 1990s' IMF crisis. Capitalist strategy of labor market fragmentation tends to divide workers into two segments such as regular workers and non-regular workers. And The wage differentials due to difference in characteristics between union group and non-union is approximately 4.77%. This paper finds the wage differentials for work status are affected by union.
Family is holy for it is the work of God. So it is the will of God to make it sweet and happy. But nowadays we may easily see the broken and shattered families by our human beings' violence. Regardless of the socio-economic and educational status which the family belongs to, violence in the family is not unusual. Though domestic violence includes all kinds of physical and mental abuse such as child, husband, wife, and geriatric abuse, it designates wife abuse in a narrow sense. This study has been centered around wife abuse, especially focusing on the physical abuse. To cautiously recognize the serious influence of the wife abuse and to prevent it, this study first considers the disposition, cognizance, and post-abuse attitudes of abusing husbands, and the analyses of actual and injury condition of abuse, and then, shows the consideration on the problems and improvements in each part. The contents of this thesis are the first, the definition of domestic violence, the second, the introduction of the three theories on the cause of domestic violence, which are psychopathological theory, social psychological theory, and social cultural theory, the third, the analyses of actual condition of violence, the fourth, the social and individual influence of domestic violence, the fifth, the problems of existing countermeasure on the domestic violence, and finally, the suggestions of improvement through the conversion of personal and social consciousness and strengthening the legal system and social welfare policy on the domestic violence. The suggestions which this study offers to improve the legal and social welfare system to decrease the domestic violence are the followings: First, The way to think of the domestic violence should be changed. Not only the consciousness of concerned parties of abuse and their family, also administrative organization should be changed. Second, shelter which is the place to give an essential rest and a chance to begin new lives again to the victims of abuse should be provided by government. The financial and administrative support of government would be the better policy to prevent coming domestic violence. Third, Relevant legal system for victims should be put into practiced. Fourth, the abusing party should not be neglected for the social unification. Society should take part in actively to help and heal the abusing party to prevent the recurrence of domestic violence. Last, economic problem, housing, working and such-like to survive, is most urgent to the victims. For the self-sustenance of the victims the practical helps such as job training and employment, psychological helps such as healing and counsel, legal and systematical police helps are needed. They need very complicated social help. Therefore, preventing and lessening the domestic violence require more systematic and social effort. Hope the social welfare of Korean society for the woman victim of abuse more improved.
The main purpose of the present study was to measure the exercise ability of Taekwondo players before and after supplementation of sodium bicarbonate. Twenty males who major in Taekwondo at university were randomly assigned to two groups which were control group and sodium bicarbonate supplementation group. 20 trained male Taekowndo players performed maximal front kicking continuously for 1minutes and took a rest for 30 seconds, and after that they had to repeated two times more of those process. And the repeated kicking times were measured each set. And also blood samples were obtained after kicking test. For the data, all the measurements were represented by mean(M) and standard deviation(SD) using SPSS Package(version 12.0). Statistical techniques for data analysis were independent t-test and paired t-test used to determine the difference among gorups and pre-post test. The 5% level of significance was used as the critical level for acceptance of hypothesis for the study. The following results were obtained from this study. 1. There were significantly increased of the kicking test at all 3 rounds in sodium bicarbonate supplementation group between pre and post test and also among the groups between control and sodium bicarbonate supplementation group. 2. There was significantly increased of the anaerobic power using cycle-ergometer between pre and post test in sodium bicarbonate supplementation group, but no significantly difference between the groups. 3. There was no significantly difference of the RPM between pre and post test, and either between the groups. 4. There was no significantly difference of the blood lactate concentration between pre and post test, but there was significantly difference among the groups between control group and sodium bicarbonate supplementation group.
투자자들은 현재 시점에서 미래에 대한 정보에 근거하여 합리적인 투자의 의사결정을 행하게 된다. 주식 가격이 미래의 경제 상황에 대한 기대값의 현재 가치라고 할 때, 주식 가격에 영향을 미치는 정보는 기업 고유의 경영 성과나재무제표 정보 뿐만 아니라 경제의 상황 변수가 될 수 있다. 왜냐하면, 주식시장에 영향을 미치는 요소는 경제 전체적인 요인과 개별기업의 특수한 요인 으로 분류할 수 있으며, 개별 기업의 특수한 요인은 전체 주식 시장의 성과를 평가할 때, 서로 상쇄되기 때문이다. 이러한 논리에 입각하여 지난 20여년 간 재무 경제학 분야에서는 주식 가격과 거시 경제 변수에 대하여 이론적인 관계 를 설정하고, 이러한 관계를 실증적으로 검증하고자 하는 많은 연구가 존하여 왔다. 이러한 연구를 뒷받침하는 주식 가격에 대한 이론으로서 배당 평가 모형과 APT 이론을 들 수 있다. 두 이론에 의해, 주식 가격이 미래 현금 흐름의 현재가치로서 결정되며, 다양한 거시 경제 요인에 의해 영향을 받는다는 주장이 설득력을 갖게 된다. 본 논문에서는 주식 시장의 가격 결정과 예측성에 영향을 미치는 거시 경제 변수들의 영향력에 대하여 분석한 기존의 연구에 대하여 고찰하고, 한국 주식 시장에 대하여 실증 분석해 보았다. 실증 분석 과정을 통해, 주식가격과 거시 경제 변수들 사이에 존재하는 상관관계와 인과관계를 살펴 보았다. 또한 변수들 사이의 동태적이고 내생적인 움직임을 살펴보기 위하여, VAR 분석에 치중 하였던 기존의 연구와는 달리 공적분과 벡터오차수정모형(VECM)을 사용하여 장기 균형 관계와 단기의 움직임에 대해 분석해 보았다. 마지막으로 벡터 오차 수정 모형에 기반하여 거시 경제 변수에 기초한 주식 가격의 예측치를 도출하여, VAR에 기반한 예측과 예측력을 비교해 보았다. 벡터 오차 수정 모형의 추정을 통하여 다음과 같은 사실을 도출할 수 있었다. 첫째, 공적분 벡터를 이용하여 주식 가격과 거시경제변수들 사이의 관계를 살펴보면, 주식 가격은 대미환율과 (+), 대일환율과 (-), 미연방기금금리와 (-), 산업생산성과 (+), 소비자물가지수와 (+), M2와 (-), 콜금리와 회사 채수익율 과는 각각 (-)의 장기적인 관계를 갖는다. 둘째, 벡터오차수정모형의 추정에서 도출된 단기 조정항을 통해, 거시 경제 변수들이 주식 가격에 미치는 영향력을 분석한 결과, 각 변수별로 계수의 4개월 시차를 합산한 값의 통계적 유의성을 판단해 보면, 주식 가격 자신의 값, 대미환율, 대일환율, 통화량, 회사채 수익률 등이 1% 유의수준에서 유의하였 으며, 미연방기금금리, 산업생산성은 5% 유의 수준에서 유의한 변수로 나타났다. 그러나 소비자물가지수와 콜금리의 유의성은 상대적으로 낮았다. 또한 벡터 오차 수정 모형을 기반으로 충격반응함수, 예측오차분산분해, 예측 등의 실험을 통해, 변수들의 시간의 흐름에 따른 영향력의 변화를 살펴보고, 이들 변수들이 주식 가격을 실제로 얼마나 잘 예측하는지를 살펴 볼 수 있었다. Investors make rational decision of investment based on the information about the future in the present time. If the stock price is the present value of expected value about the future economic condition, the information that affects stock price can be the variable that shows economic condition as well as company's own management results or balanced sheet information. Because, if we classify the factors that affects the stock market into the two category, one is the general factor that enables the overall economy to move and the other is each company's specific factor, the latter is offset each other by appraising the result of the overall stock market. Based on these facts, for recent 20 years, many dissertation that analyze the relationship between the stock price and macroeconomic variables have been existed in the field of financial economics. The theories which support this point are 'dividend evaluation model' and APT(Arbitrage Pricing Theory). In this thesis, I investigated existed researches about the price determination in the stock market and the relative importance of macroeconomic variables. And I analyze the Korea's stock market empirically. In the process of empirical analysis, I found the correlation and causality between the stock price and macroeconomic variables. To see the dynamic and endogenous movement of variables, I used the method of cointegration and VECM(Vector Error Correction Model) By these method, I could analyzed the long-term equilibrium relationship and short-term movement of variables. Next, based on the VECM, I derived the forecasted value of stock price using macroeconomic variables, and compared with the VAR-based forecasted value. By estimating the VECM, I derived some facts like below. First, we can have some definite relationship between stock price and macroeconomic variables by analyzing the cointegration vector. That is, stock price has the (+) relationship with US exchange rate, (-) with Japanese exchange rate, (-) with US fund rate, (+) with industrial index, (+) with consumer's price index, (-) with M2, (-) with domestic call rate(short-run interest rate), and (-) with corporate bond yield(long-run interest rate). Second, by short-term adjustment term derived in estimating the VECM, we can see the relative importance of macroeconomic variables to the stock market price by the statistical significant(4 lag terms' value are added). Stock price, US exchange rate, Japanese exchange rate, M2, and benchmark three-year corporate bond yield are significant at the 1% significant level, US fund rate and industrial index are significant at the 5% significant level. But the significance of consumer price index and call rate is relatively low. I also carried out the empirical work like 'impulse response function' and 'forecast error variance decomposition'. By those works, I could find the change of influence of variable in the flow of time. And I could compare the forecastability of each macroeconomic variable to the stock market.
This study reports the improvements of electrical characteristics for N-type OTFTs with Bphen:Cs electron injection layer between C60 and Al electrodes. We compared the electrical characteristics of OTFTs with/without Bphen:Cs electron injection layer. By inserting a 5Å thick Bphen:Cs layer, the field effect mobility increased from 0.029 [cm2/Vs] to 0.127 [cm2/Vs], max drain current was increased from 4.70 × 10-7 [A] to 2.07 × 10-6 [A] and threshold voltage was reduced from 4.7 [V] to 3.3 [V]. Also, Ion/Ioff current ratio increased from 1.5×103 to 4×104. We suggest Bphen:Cs and Al metal layer generated the strong intermolecular interaction, which lowered the electron injection barrier of Bphen:Cs/Al interface, at the same time, moved a Fermi level of Al electrode and change the Al metal work function. This would help electrons transfer well from Al layer to C60 active layer with short hopping. And doped Cs alkali metal enhanced the electrical performance by tunneling effect. Thus we confirmed that Bphen:Cs thin film (5Å) can be applied into OTFT as electron injection layer.