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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of history education of dramatic activity on children’s historical thinking ability and language ability. Participants in this study were forty 5-year-old kindergarteners who were divided into and participated as an experimental group and a control group. The experimental treatments took place for 5 weeks. The former group had dramatic activity and executed related activities while the latter group didn’t participate. Instead, it participated in general kindergarten lessons and saw old pictures in the class. Data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 using the scores of pre-test as covariance. The results showed that the experimental group had significantly higher scores on the historical thinking ability and language ability test than did the control group. The results of this study suggested that the biography activity is effective to promote young children’s historical thinking ability and language ability. 본 연구의 목적은 극화활동을 통한 역사교육 프로그램을 개발하고, 개발한 프로그램이 유아의 역사적 사고력과 언어능력에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지를 알아보는 것이다. 연구대상은 G시에 소재한 W유치원에 다니는 유아 42명(실험집단 21명, 비교집단 21명)이었다. 본 연구에서는 류혜숙과 김명화(2009)가 사용한 역사적 사고력 검사도구, 송주연과 황해익(2003)의 활동중심 유아 언어 평가도구를 본 연구에 맞게 수정, 보완하여 사용하였다. 수집된 자료는 t-검증을 통해 실험집단과 비교집단간의 차이를 분석하였다. 본 연구 결과는 옛 그림을 활용한 극화활동이 유아의 역사적 사고력과 언어능력에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 이러한 결과는 유아교육현장에서 극화활동을 통한 역사교육을 실시하는 것이 효과적인 교수·학습 방법이 될 수 있음을 시사한다.
Background: To test whether propofol with fentanyl pretreatment produces better sedative efficacy than that of propofol alone in patients under spinal anesthesia. Methods: Fifty-four patients undergoing lower leg orthopedic surgery were sedated randomly with propofol-normal saline (PN, n = 27) or propofol-fentanyl (PF, n = 27). In both groups, sedation was maintained with an initial loading dose of propofol 0.4 mg/kg,and subsequent infusion at a rate of 50 μg/kg/min. Prior to propofol administration, normal saline 0.02 ml/kg or fentanyl 1 μg/kg was given intravenously to Group PN and Group PF, respectively. We measured bispectral index (BIS) and the Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/ Sedation (OAA/S) scale scores to investigate sedative efficacy, prior to and at 5 minute intervals for 1 hour after propofol infusion. Results: BIS and OAA/S scores were decreased in both groups over time after starting propofol infusion (P < 0.0001). Comparison between the PF group and the PN group at each time point did not demonstrate statistically significant differences, and group effect was also not found to be statistically significant for BIS and OAA/S [BIS, P = 0.4644 (group effect), P = 0.7817 (time*group interaction)],[OAA/S scale, P = 0.4373 (group effect), P = 0.125 (time*group interaction)]. Conclusions: Judging from the BIS and OAA/S scores, propofol with fentanyl pretreatment did not produce an additional sedative effect compared to propofol alone in spinal anesthesia.
Background: This study uses the relevance index to understand the condition of regional medical service use for cardiovascular surgery and to identify the medical service use imbalance between regions. Methods: This study calculated the relevance index of 16 metropolitan cities and provinces using resident registration address data from the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs and the 2010–2014 health insurance, medical care assistance, and medical benefits claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. We identified developments over the 5-year time period and analyzed the level of regional imbalance regarding cardiovascular surgery through the relative comparison of relevance indexes between cardiovascular and other types of surgery. Results: The relevance index was high in large cities such as Seoul, Daegu, and Gwangju, but low in regions that were geographically far from the capital area, such as the Gangwon and Jeju areas. Relevance indexes also fell as the years passed. Cardiovascular surgery has a relatively low relevance index compared to key types of surgery of other fields, such as neurosurgery and colorectal surgery. Conclusion: This study identified medical service use imbalance between regions for cardiovascular surgery. Results of this study demonstrate the need for political intervention to enhance the accessibility of necessary special treatment, such as cardiovascular surgery.