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This study aims to analyze the influence of psychological capital on organizational performance and to verify the moderating effect of emotional intelligence and the mediating effect of positive mood. The results of an analysis are as follows: First, the influence of psychological capital is higher in job satisfaction than in OCB. Second, the moderating effect of emotional intelligence is recognized in psychological capital and organizational performance. In particular, job satisfaction shows a higher moderating effect than OCB does. Third, no direct effect of psychological capital on OCB is recognized while an indirect effect of psychological capital on OCB through positive mood is recognized. Thus, it is judged that the results of this study would be effectively utilized as a means of motivation for growing individuals and achieving organizations’goals by emphasizing the importance of psychological capital and psychology and systematically managing psychological phenomena according to individual differences.
최근 7년(2010-2016)간 선박충돌사고 발생원인 분석결과 경계소홀 등 선장 및 당직항해사의 인적오류로 인하여 야기된 사고가 98%를 차지하고 있는 것으로 조사되었다. 선박충돌사고는 2014년 180건 대비 2015년 235건 발생으로 증가하고 있다. 충돌사고 예방을 위해서는 해기사의 인적오류에 대한 심층적 연구가 필요하나 국내외적으로 연구사례는 많지 않은 실정이다. 본 연구의 목적은 OOW의 인적오류에 의한선박충돌사고 원인을 상대선 최초 인지부터 충돌까지 소요시간(TIPOSC)을 중점으로 조사하고 통계적으로 분석하여 충돌사고 예방 정책 자료로 제시하기 위한 것이다. 2010년부터 2016년 까지 중앙해양안전심판원 재결서를 조사하여 충돌사례 총 109건, 218척을 대상으로 연구하였다. 연구결과 첫째, TIPOSC는 조사 대상선박 전체와 상선에 공통으로 30초 이내가 가장 많아 충돌을 피할 겨를도 없이 충돌한 것으로 나타났고 평균은 각 3분과 6분이었다. 둘째, 상선에서 TIPOSC와 OOW와의 관계는 30초이내 구간에서 선장의 경계소홀이 54%로 가장 많아 상황인식의 실패가 인적오류의주요 원인이었다. 셋째, 상선의 충돌 원인은 경계소홀이 56척(41.8%)으로 가장 많았고 유지선의 적절한 피항 협력동작 미 이행 42척(31.3%), 상대선 초인 후 지속 감시소홀이 22척(16.4%)순이었다. 넷째, 상선에서 충돌 원인요인은 30초 이내 구간에서경계소홀이 가장 많았다. 다섯째, 상선에서 TIPOSC와 경계소홀 유형 원인은 30초이내에서 부주의로 인한 상대선박 미 인지가 가장 많았고 미 경계 요인과의 관계는 OOW가 항해당직시간에 해도개정, 문서작성 등 당직외의 다른 업무에 집중하여 경계를 소홀히 한 점이 인적오류의 주요 원인으로 나타났다. The analysis of the causes of ship collision accidents during the last 7 years (2010-2016) revealed that 98% of the accidents caused by the human errors of the captains and the duty officers. The number of ship collisions is rising from 180 in 2014 to 235 in 2015. In order to prevent a collision accident, it is necessary to study in detail the human error of the OOW. The purpose of this study is to present the cause of ship collision caused by human error of OOW as collision accident prevention policy data by analyzing the time required from the first to the collision and statistically analyzing it. A total of 109 collision cases were surveyed(2010-2016). The results of the study show that TIPOSC, which is the time from the first perception of the opponent to the collision, was the most within 30 seconds for the merchant vessels. The average was 6 minutes. Second, the relationship between the TIPOSC and OOW was the cause of major human error, with the negligence of lookout being the largest at 54% within 30 seconds. Third, the cause of ship collision of merchant vessels was the negligence of lookout(41.8%).In the following, 42 vessels (31.3%) did not perform adequate anti-cooperative activities.Followed by 22 vessels (16.4%), which were not monitored continuously. Fourth, TIPOSC and the cause of ship collision are within 30 seconds the negligence of lookout was the most common. Fifth, merchant vessel TIPOSC and type of negligence of lookout factor were the most cause of not recognizing the opponent ship carelessly within 30 seconds. The relationship with 'do not watch' factors showed that OOW 's other tasks were the main cause of human error during the watch time.
This study developed the prototype of the system and implemented its main functions, which is the intelligent integrated agricultural water management information system and service (IaWAMISS). The developed system was designed to be able to collect, process and analyze the agricultural water information of spatially dispersed reservoirs in whole country and spatial geographic information distributed in various systems of other organizations. The system, IaWAMISS, is also possible to provide the reproduced information services in each reservoir and space units, such as agricultural water demand and supply analysis and drought prediction, to the people, experts, and policy makers. This study defined the 6 step modules to develop the system, which are to design the components of intelligent integrated information system, to derive the utilization contents of existing systems, to design the new development elements for IaWAMISS, to design the reservoir information system can be used by managers of city and county, to designate the monitoring reservoirs managed by city and county, and finally to prepare the sharing system between organizations with the existing information systems. In order to implement the prototype of the system, this study shows the results for three important functions of the system: spatial integration of reservoirs' information, data link integration between the existing systems, and intelligent analysis program development to assist decision support for agricultural water management. For the spatial integration with the reservoir water information of the Korea Rural Community Corporation, this study get IaWAMISS to receive the real-time reservoir storage information from the measurement facility installed in the municipal management reservoir. The data link integration connecting databases of the existing systems, was implemented by integrating the meteorological information of the Korea Meteorological Administration with IaWAMISS, so that the rainfall forecast data could be derived and used. For the implementation of the intelligent analysis program, this study also showed the results of analysis and prediction of agricultural water demand and supply amount, estimation of Palmer drought index, analysis of flood risk area in typhoon course region, and analysis of the storage status of reservoirs related to each storm. This study confirmed the possibility and efficiency of an useful system development through the prototype design and implementation of IaWAMISS. By solving the preliminary 6 step modules presented in this study, it is possible not only to efficiently manage water by spatial unit, but also to provide the service of information and to enhance the relevant policy and national understanding to the people.
본 연구의 목적은 실제 선박 충돌사고 사례를 조사하여 선박 충돌상황에서 충돌 원인별 선장 및 당직 해기사의 인적과실 유발요인을 통계적으로 분석하여 규명함으로써 해기사의 선박 충돌예방에 기여하고자 하는 것이다. 연구대상은 2010년부터 2016년까지 7년 동안의 상선과 상선, 상선과 어선 간의 선박 충돌사고 중 분석기준에 적합한 총 109건 218척(피항선109척, 유지선 109척)을 대상으로 하였으며 선종, 피항선과 유지선, 인적과실 측면의 충돌원인 등의 항목으로 구분하여 데이터를 수집하였고 상선에서 해기사의 충돌사고 유발 요인 규명에 중점을 두고 통계분석 도구인 SPSS를 이용하여 빈도분석과 교차분석을 실시하여 해기사의 인적과실 유발요인을 도출하였다. 분석결과 피항선에서는 레이다 감시를 포함한 경계소홀(74.3%) 및 상대선 지속관찰 소홀(17.4%) 순 이었으며, 유지선 에서는 적절한 피항협력동작 미 이행(63.3%)이 주요 요인이었다. 특히 상선의 경계소홀 유형 대부분이 상대선 초인 후 지속관찰을 소홀히 한 점이며 미 경계 원인과 당직근무 태만의 공통요인은 항해당직 시간에 다른 업무에 치중하였기 때문인 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the prevention of ship collisions by investigating real ship collision cases and statistically analyzing causes of human error for captains and Officers of the Watch (OOW). This study encompassed a total of 109 cases for 218 vessels, which were suitable for the analysis of ship accidents between merchant ships or merchant ships and fishing boats over the 7 years from 2010 to 2016. Data was collected while classifying vessels according to type, Give-way and Stand-on vessels, along with the cause of human error. Factors causing human error were identified after focusing on the cause of each collision given by the OOW ; frequency and cross tabulation analyses were conducted using SPSS, a statistical analysis tool. As a result, the main causes of human error by an OOW in a ship collision situation were that lookout was neglected in a Give-way vessel including radar surveillance (74.3%) or continuous observation of an opponent vessel was carried out (17.4%). A major factor for Stand-on vessels was failure to act to avoid collision with another vessel (63.3%). In particular, most neglect for lookout type merchant ships occurred after the opponent ship was first observed, and a common cause of lookout neglect and neglect of duty was a focus on other tasks during navigational watch time.
This study examined the status of the laboratory biosafety of researchers in Korea during 03 Jan 2017∼25 Mar 2017. Questionnaires were given out to 500 researchers working with pathogens in the laboratory of universities and institutes. According to the results, the respondents showed a high level of awareness but not compliance on the overall biosafety rules and regulations. Regarding the Biosafety facility level, 279 (55.8%) of respondents answered “know” and 221 (44.2%) of respondents answered “no”. Despite the insufficient safety equipment and biosafety plans, researchers believed that appropriate safety measures could protect the workers and that their laboratories are safe. In a study involving biosafety education, 80% of the researchers had been trained in laboratory safety and 20% had never received safety education. The need for biosafety education was 66% and the satisfaction rate of education was 46%. These results suggest that the researchers already had experience in biosafety training, but they believed that continuing education is necessary. In addition, there were opinions that the most important thing to improve the biosafety status is to strengthen the training program and education system. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop a better training system for laboratory biosafety regarding the exposure risks. 본 연구는 2017년 1월 3일∼3월 25일까지 실험실 연구자를 대상으로 생물 안전성에 대한 현황 연구를 목적으로 한다. 국내감염병 병원체 취급대학 및 의과대학 소속 실험실에서 병원성미생물을 취급하는 실험실 연구자 총 500명을 설문 조사하여 실시되었다. 조사 결과에 따르면 응답자는 높은 수준의 인지도를 보였으나 전반적인 생물 안전성 규칙 및 규정을 준수하지는 않았다. 실험실의 생물안전 시설의 등급 여부에 관한 문항에 관한 질문에는 ‘알고 있다’가 55.8%,‘모른다’가 44.2%로 나타났다. 연구자들은 적절한 안전 조치가 개인을 보호 할 수 있으며, 안전 장비와 생물 안전 계획이 충분하지 않음에도 실험실이 안전하다고 믿었다. 생물안전교육에 관련된 조사에서 연구자의 80%는 실험실 안전에 대한 교육을 받은 경험이 있었고 20%는 안전교육을 받은 적이 없었다. 생물안전교육에 대한 필요성은 66%, 교육내용에 대한 만족도는 46%로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 연구자들은 이미 생물안전교육을 받은 경험이 있지만 지속적인 교육이 필요한 것으로 생각하였다. 또한 생물 안전성 수준을 향상시키는데 있어 가장 중요한 것은 훈련 프로그램 및 교육시스템을 강화하는 것이라는 의견이 있었다. 결론적으로 실험실에서 일어날 수 있는 위험에 대비하기 위한 실험실 생물 안전에 대한 보다 개선된 교육 시스템을 개발할 필요가 있다.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the changes of rural development policies in the last 20 years by analyzing the budget distribution by policy objectives and support factors. 1997, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 Guidelines of Agricultural, Food and Rural Development Project were analyzed to identify the budget distribution. The objectives of rural development policy were classified into 5 fields and 27 detailed factors such as production environment, distribution environment, technology and human resources, living environment, income support. The support factors of rural development policy were classified into 3 fields and 17 detailed factors. The budget of rural development policy has greatly increased from 952,297 million won in 1997 to 4,869,174 million won in 2010 and 3,905,340 million won in 2015. In budget distribution by policy objectives, the policy was mainly focused on management funding in 1997, 2000 and in the 2000s, it was confirmed that investment in the improvement of the living environment was rapidly taking place. In budget distribution by policy support factors, it was found that living environment and welfare environment support factor in rural area occupied the largest portion and welfare, tourism, and living environment has been rapidly increasing since 2005.
In recent decades, the dry stream phenomena of small and medium sized rivers have been attracting much attention as an important social problem. To prevent dry stream phenomena, it is necessary to build an infrastructure that manages rivers. To accurately determine the progress of dry stream phenomena, it is necessary to continuously measure the discharge and other hydrological factors for small and medium sized rivers. However, until now, the flow data for small and medium rivers in Korea has been insufficient. To overcome the lack of supporting data for supporting rational decision-making in policy and project implementation, a short- and long-term hydrological model was developed that takes into consideration hydrological changes such as the increase of the impervious area due to urban development and groundwater pumping, the construction of a large-scale sewage treatment plant, the maintenance of stream-oriented rivers, etc. In the developed model, the distributed grid is represented by three layers: Surface flow, interflow, and groundwater flow. The surface flow and intermediate flow flowed along the flow direction, and the groundwater flow was calculated by a two-dimensional groundwater analysis model such that the outflow occurred in all directions without a specific flow direction. The effects of land use and cover on evapotranspiration and infiltration and the effects of multiple landscapes can be simulated in the developed model.