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In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by medicine but by physics is because ophthalmologists did not have conciliatory attitudes to optometry education. Optometry became independent of physics from the 1930s to the 1940s. Optometric researches concentrated on binocular vision that is not included to discipline of physics, and faculty members who majored in optometry increased, so that optometry departments and graduate schools were established around 1940. Such independence from natural sciences after academization also resembles history of engineering. On the contrary, history of optometry was different from history of ophthalmology in several aspects. Ophthalmology had already been formed in the 18th century before development of visual optics, and was not academized by visual optics. Ophthalmologists body were not originated from craftsmen, and were not separated from craftsmen. History of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century is analogous to history of engineering rather than history of medicine, though optometry is a medical discipline.
The purpose of this study is to increase Academic learning Time -Physical Education(ALT-PE) by analyzing the relationship between the teaching behavior and the learning behavior in middle school physical education classes. The result of this study by recording the 10 randomly sellected teacher'physical education classes with VTR in Phyong tak city area abstracted as fallows. first, in teaching behaviors, teachers allocated class time in the order of monitoring, Management, Lecturing or Orienticipation, Corrective Skill feedback. In a correlation with Academic Learning Time - Physical(ALT-PE), hustle, Positive skill Feedback, Teacher Participation variable have positive correlation. However, Lecturing or Orientation, Naglect, Questioning show negative Correlation. Second, Academic Learning Time - Physical Education(ALT-PE) at middle school pyoung t다 city turn out to be a low 22.62 percent by analying student'behavior phenomenon. This figure is much lower than that of Seoul, Kyunggi, Chungbuk area(37.89) percent by Kim Tae-hyung) and Chungnam area(29.44 percent by Choi jong sun). It means that decreasing the time of Monitoring, Management and lecturing or Orientation makes the time of corrective skill feedback which showered positive correlation with Academic Learning Time - Physical Education(ALT-RE) Increase. In conclusion, teachers should utilize More effcient physical education teaching methods by developing various future-oriented teaching patterns to over come routine monotonous classes. To achieve this goal, teachers should analyze their own classes, use teaching aid materials, implement adequate teaching skill ; methods of drawing more student'attention effciency in class management and roll-calling, rapidness in arranging implements, simple and clear directions. In addition to, we have many problem to solve: insufficients, too many students in class with wating, moveing and non-activity time to be reduce, and so on. Naturally, to increase Academic Learning Time - Physical Education(ALT-PE), it is neccessary that problem above mentioned Will be solved.
We investigated optometric aspects of advanced health service system of the American Forces, considering necessity of sirnilar system for the Korean Armed Forces. The U. S. military optometric service system was investigated on the basis of open materials given by the American Army, Navy and Air Force, focusing on military optometrist and optical laboratory specialist positions. We compared the results of investigation with present status of optometric servicets of the Korean Armed Forces. The American Forces have an advanced optometric service system managed by the military optometrists. who are similar with the military medical officers. and optical laboratory specialists, who are considered as expert groups. The U. S. military offers soldiers eye test and optometric services of very high quality, while the optometric service of the Korean Armed Forces is very limited and much improvement is required for better eye health and visual care. We think that it is necessary to introduce an optometric specialist position to the Korean military organization for better cornbat capability.
The following conclusions were obtained from the investigation and analysis of the degree of satisfaction attained by the members of sporting facilities, more specifically, on the subject of 350 members of both sexes who are presently registered to a number of sporting facilities around the metropolitan DaeJeon area (particularly with "T"sports center Squash Clubs). First, the investigation on the degree of satisfaction attained by the members with respect to the gender difference shows that a higher level of satisfaction was attained by the male members on the account of the quality of service and comprehensive service factors including the main facility, peripheral facility, sporting programs staffing, instructor. Hence, a successful marketing strategy could be formulated for the female members if the main facility is equipped with more modern equipment and new exercise machines and the peripheral facilities are made more convenient. Moreover, a more variety of the sporting programs should be available and a strong emphasis should made on improving the kindness and the quality of the instructions provided by the staff and instructors. Second, the investigation on the degree of satisfaction with respect to the age difference shows that the age difference is not directly related to the quality of service and comprehensive service factors including the main facility peripheral facility, sporting program, staffing, and instructor. Nonetheless, it show that a successful marketing strategy could be formulated if a strong emphasis is made on the main facility and instructor factor for the members in 20s, the peripheral facility, sporting program and staffing factors for the members in 30s and the peripheral facility factor for the members in 40s. Third, the investigation on the degree of satisfaction with respect to the education level also shows that the difference in the education level also does not influence the satisfaction level in the quality of service and comprehensive service factors including the main facility, peripheral facility, sporting program, staffing and instructor. Nonetheless, it shows that a successful marketing strategy could be formulated if a strong emphasis is made on the main facility for the members educated to the below high school level, the improving the kindness and the quality of the instructions for the members educated to the below university level and the sporting program and staffing factors for the members educated to the above university level. Fourth, the investigation on the degree of satisfaction with respect to the income difference also shows that the income difference also does not influence the satisfaction level in the quality of service and comprehensive service factors including the main facility, peripheral facility, sporting program, staffing, and instructor. However, a successful marketing strategy could also be formulated if a strong emphasis is made on the main facility and instructor factors for the members with an income level 1.5 million won per month, the sporting program factor for the members with an income level between 1.5 and 3 million won per month, and the peripheral facility factor and the improving the kindness and the quality of the instructions for the members with an income level above 3 million won per month Fifth, the investigation on the degree of satisfaction with respect to the difference in professions also shows that the difference in professions does not influence the satisfaction level in the quality of service and comprehensive service factors including the main facility peripheral facility, sporting program, staffing, and instructor. However, the instructors are highly appraised by the members who are either students, or in the technical and service professions and on the contrary the same instructors are poorly appraised by the members who are housewives. Hence, the investigation shows that a successful marketing strategy could also be formulated if a strong emphasis is made on the main facility factor for the members who are either students or in the technical professions, the peripheral facility factor for the members who are in the service professions, the sporting program and staffing factors for the members who are office workers, and the instructor factor for the members who are students.
The purpose of the present study was to determine generalizability of context interference effect by types of basketball dribble task characteristics. The subjects of this study were 30 male students of middle school in PU Yeo County, who were randomly assigned to the three conditions(n=10). Subjects were tested with three basketball task in a 3 X 4(context interference condition X block) factorial design with repeated measures on blocks. A two - way repeated ANOVA with repeated measures and a post Tukey's HSD test were used in order to see whether there exists significant difference between the groups. The results are as follows : First, higher the performance of baketball dribble task during acquisition phase was found for block context group than for random context group and serial context group. Second, higher the performance of baketball dribble task during retention phase was found for random context group than for block context group and serial context group.