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In the past few years, the number of reports concerning eating disorders have increased in Korea with the rapid introduction of the Western culture accompanied by economic development. Recent sociocultural values emphasize thinness, so most women are dissatisfied with their bodies and preoccupied with dieting. Therefore they go on strict diets, which lead to binge eating and purging as bulimia nervosa. Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by repeated bouts of overeating and an excessive preoccupation with the control of body weight, leading to a pattern of overeating and vomiting. Repeated vomiting is likely to give rise to disturbances of body electrolytes and physical complications. Further, bulimia nervosa is characterized by a pattern of uncontrolled episodic binge eating followed by low mood, self-deprecatory thoughts, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, low self-esteem and depression. This syndrome is accompanied by severe restrictive dieting, self-induced vomiting, and/or laxative use for weight control, demands of frequent weight-control. Accordingly, This study was review on the studies of the binge eating and weight control, introduced cognitive-behavioral group therapy to improve the frequency of binging and purging, eating attitude and self-esteem. There are many methods of treatment, including drug therapy for the treatment of binge eating. Among them cognitive-behavioral therapy is reported to be the most effective method of improving the binge eating behavior and the cognitive distortion about body weight and body image. As this preliminary study suggest that cognitive-behavioral group therapy may be an effective approach for the treatment of binge eating. Further, this study aimed at providing systematic long-term evaluation. The cognitive-behavioral therapy introduced in this study, was treated with modified Fairburn's cognitive behavior therapy model.
Background/Aims: Percutaneous cholecystostomy for decompression and drainage of the gallbladder is indicated when the patient is elderly or suffers from an inflatnmatory process of the gallbladder and is unable to tolerate an operation. To evaluate the role of percutaneous cholecystostomy in the management of acute cholecystitis in the high risk patients, we reviewed our experiences. Methods: Fourteen high risk critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy from January, 1994 to July, 1995 using 8.7 Fr pigtail catheter under real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance. Results: The clinical conditions of 14 patients improved after percutaneous cholecystostomy without technical complications. Eight patients subsequently underwent successful elective cholecystectomy after improvement in their medical condition, but one patient who underwent surgery died 10 days after surgery due to gastric varix bleeding which was not related to the gallbladder catheter. The remaining six patients had resolution of acute cholecystitis but did not undergo elective operation because of their poor medical conditions (three in calculous disease) and restoration of gallbladder function(three in acalculous disease). Conclusions: Percutaneous cholecystostomy may be used as an initial life saving procedure for critically I]1 patients with acute cholecystitis, and serves as a definitive procedure for patients considered to be at high operative risk and who have no residual stones.
Where each small test of K-WAIS were divided into four types of memory, concept formation ability, visionary organization, visionary movement integrationand guiding ability using Rapaport's method. The result showed that compared with the control group, the training group was significant in the compact version of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale test that assesses the attention; they also showed significant performance in behavioral function tests including TMT A and B, and WCST. However, their performance in some behavioral improvement was not outstanding, which partially supports the argument that the attention disorder causes other disabilities in behavioral functions. This result also suggests the attentive ability involves much care and is associated with more complex capabilities. For both functions to be improved, those with chronic schizophrenicneed more intense and sustained attention buildup training. Consequently, these observations suggest that the attention improvement program has positive effect on the behavioral functions of those suffering the chronic schizophrenic, as well as the program should be included in the treatment of that illness.
Connitive theories and data on depression and social anxiety empathized the maladaptive cognitions. Many researchers have proposed that depressed individuals have cognitions overempathizing negative information. Negative cognitions also have been reported in social anxiety. Typical cognitive features in depression are as follows: excessive self-focused attention, negative self-concept, negative automatic thought, information-processing consistent with negative self-schema, negative attributional style, and low performance expectancy. And typical cognitive characteristics in social anxiety are as follows: excessive public self-consciousness, irrational beliefs, negative self-statements, low self-presentation outcome expectancy, negative attributional style, and information-processing hypersensitive to social threat. In previous studies, many common cognitive features between depression and social anxiety have been found. And that the cognitive specificity in depression and social anxiety can be identified by cognitive contents rather than cognitive processes has been suggested. Critical cognitive features differentiating social anxiety from depression can be condenced into the schema preoccupied with negative evaluations of others in social situations. Finally, necessity for research exploring cognitve specificity in depression, general anxiety, and social anxiety is discussed.
Bezoar is the gallstone of ox. It is important ingredient of some traditional medicines, which have been used to treat coma, delirium, convulsions and so on, but its effective components and mechanism of pharmacology are still not clear. An analysis of minerals in various Bezoars, Artificial Bezoar, Ox-bile powders, Pig-bile powders and Human gallstones and elutions in the gastric juice prepared from them was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Contents of total bilirubin and cholic acid in these samples were analysed and IR spectra patterns were studied. The results demonstrated that there is a great difference between the natural Bezoar and Artificial Bezoar in content of minerals, elution rate of minerals, bilirubin, cholic acid and IR spectra pattern. But Bezoars were similar to human gallstones in these components. Since we have found that the human gallstones have similar components as the Bezoar, this will provide a valuable information that the human gallstone may be used instead of the Bezoar, which is very scarce.
Social anxiety is obviously an important issue affecting many people. But it has been relatively neglected for many years and research has been scattered across different disciplines. I accept the definition of social anxiety conceiving as anxiety resulting form the prospect or presence of personal evaluation in real or imagined social situations. Recently many researchers emphasize that inappropriate cognitions are antecedents of social anxiety. Typical cognitive characterisics in social anxiety are as follows : excessive public self-consciousness, low self-presentation outcome expectancies. negative attributional styles, and negative self-statement or thinking. I review studies that investigate cognitive characteristics in social anxiety and suggest issues in social anxiety as follows. First, there must be concensus on the meaning of the term "social anxiety" versus "shyness". Second, the hypothesis that motivation to impress to others is antecedent of social anxiety should be testified. Third, researchers should investigate whether the dominance schema priming the individual to appraise social reality as structured in terms of dominance hierarchies is antecedent of social anxiety. Fourth, whether socially anxious people have negatively distorted cognitions or lack positively biased cognitions should be studied. And last, research discriminating cognitions in social anxiety and cognitions in depression should be performed.
자기제시 모형에서는 자기제시 동기가 높으면 대인불안을 더 많이 경험할 것이라고 가정한다. 본 연구는 자기제시 동기 요인에 속하는 성향적 요인으로 공적 자기의식과 인정추구 요구가 대인불안과 어떤 관계가 있는가를 알아보고, 이를 통해 자기제시 모형의 가설을 검증하는 것이 목적이었다. 여자대학생 집단을 대상으로 성향적 대인불안 척도, 자기의식 척도 및 인정추구 요구를 측정한다고 알려진 사회적 선희도 척도를 실시하여 그 관계를 알아보았다. 연구결과, 대인불안 점수는 공적 자기의식 점수와는 상관되었으나, 사적 자기의식 점수와는 상관되지 않았다. 예언과는 달리 대인불안 점수는 인정추구 요구를 측정하는 사회적 선희도 점수와는 상관되지 않았다. 이어서 자기제시 모형과 관련하여 본 연구결과의 시사점을 논의하였다. Self-presentation model suggested that an self-presentational motivation incresed beyond zero, the probability of social anxiety increased. Dispositional variables of self-presentational motivation factor are public self-conscious and need for social approval. The aim of the present study was examined self-presentational motivation factor of self-presentation model. This study examined the relations among public self-consciousness, need for social approval, and dispositional social anxiety. As predicted, public self-consciousness was positively correlated with social anxiety. But contradicted to prediction, need for social approval was not correlated with social anxiety. Finally the present findings for future work on social anxiety were discussed.
Primary small intestinal lymphomas are a hetorogenous group of tumors ortginating from the lymphoid cells of the mucosa and submucosa of the small bowel. The ileum and jejunum are most frequently affected, whereas duodenal involvement is less common. There is a himodal age distribution with peak incidences below the age of 10 and in the fifth and sixth decados, with a slight male prodominance. And it is very difficult to diagnose until the dovelopment of any complications such as obstruction, perforation and hemorrahage because of the insidious onset of disense and relative inaccuracy of the diagnostic tools as in all the small bowel tumor. Optimal treatment choices for lymphoma remain controversial. Surgical resection, in many cases, is considered the first line of defense. Primary malignant lymphoma of the small intestine has poorer prognosis due to the delay of the diagnosis than any other extra-intestinal malignancy, but has the better prognosis than any other small intestinal malignancy. The histologic type, the extent of the intestinal disease, and the prosence or absence of extraintestinal involvement are the important factors in prognosis. Patients with resectable disease typically have a 40%, to 50%, 5-year survival. Recently the authers diagnosed the primary small intestinal lymphoma associated with a large amount of bleeding confirmed by intraoperative biopsy. So we report this case with the review ot literatures.