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Recently NGOs have been doing major roles to reform Korean society like they are doing civil revolution to make Korean Society better. This is a good time to show how powerful voters and taxpayers are, because Koreans have long time been under central based policy and voters and taxpayers' status have been low. NGOs in Korea have long history and experiences, such as Kye, Dure, Hwang Yag and small groups, which have been contributing to improving their communities aspect of community development. Therefore, the relationship between NGOs and community development is very high. But it is very difficult that traditional NGOs like Kye, Dure or Hwang Yag find and solve community problems in changing society rapidly, and civil organizations(NGOs) are being founded to find and solve variously social problems aspect of community development. We need to make NGOs more active to do a good community development. The major findings of this are as follow: first; NGOs must be founded by community people's voluntary participation. Because community development is depending on whether community people' participating in the community development projects, the community developments through NGOs need community people's interesting and participating. second; NGOs could provide educational programs to community people for doing community development. Community development starts from training community people, because the training can let community people feel from the unfelt needs to felt needs. third; NGOs should accept the organizational technology to manage the NGO systematically. NGOs are non-profit organizations that are in private sector, and they need fund and human resources who are volunteers. NGOs must have the capacity needed and the technology to raise the fund and manage the human resources. fourth; the network among NGOs in a community is necessary to do community development effectively. there are lots NGOs in a community, they have their goals to do in the community, they often are in conflict when they are doing their works that differ from one another. To do community development more effectively, they should cooperate with each other.
Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify predictors of behavior that promotes health in middle school students. Method: The participants for this study were 361 students from one middle school, located in Gangwon province. The data were collected by a questionnaire given to the students. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The highest score for behavior promoting health was refraining illegal substances abuse. There was a significant positive correlation between behavior promoting health and optimism. There was a significant reverse correlation between behavior promoting health and pessimism, and also between optimism and pessimism. The predictors of behavior promoting health in middle school students were optimism, school life, pessimism, school record, grade, and smoking. These factors explained 25.7% of the total variance and the most powerful predictor was optimism (15.5%). Conclusion: The findings from this study, indicate a need to develop a nursing intervention programs to promote health behavior in middle school students including the promotion of optimism.
In 5G mobile communication, it is necessary to provide different mobility to user equipments(UE) that do not require mobility management or need limited mobility management. In this paper, we propose a two-layer mobility management system that classifies multiple MTC devices with similar mobility levels into c-MTC and m-MTC groups. In order to improve the energy efficiency and service life by reducing the number of control signals generated when TAU is performed, the group header typically performs a Tracking Area Update(TAU) request and adjusts the periodic TAU update period according to the mobility level. The TAU update period of the m-MTC is set to 54 minutes proposed by the 3GPP standard and the c-MTC is set to 12 minutes. Compared to when the UEs perform TAU individually, it is found that the number of control signals decreases by 33% when the MME is not changed and by 49% when the MME is not changed in the m-MTC or c-MTC group. 5G 이동통신에서는 이동성 관리를 필요로 하지 않거나 제한된 이동성 관리만을 필요로 하는 단말에 대하여 차별적으로 이동성을 제공할 수 있어야 한다. 본 논문에서는 이동 수준이 유사한 다수의 MTC 단말을 c-MTC와 m-MTC 그룹으로 분류하는 2계층 이동성 관리시스템을 제안한다. Tracking Area Update (TAU)를 수행할 때 발생하는 제어신호의 수를 줄여 에너지 효율 및 서비스 수명을 향상시키기 위해 그룹 헤더가 대표적으로 TAU Request를 수행하도록 하며 이동 수준에 따라 주기적인 TAU 갱신 주기를 조절하였다. m-MTC의 TAU 갱신주기는 3GPP 표준에서 제안하는 기본값인 54분으로 설정하였으며, c-MTC는 이 보다 짧은 주기를 갖는 것으로 하여 12분으로 설정하였다. 단말들이 개별적으로 TAU를 실행할 때와 비교해 보면, m-MTC 또는 c-MTC 그룹에서 MME가 변경되지 않는 경우 33% 그리고 MME가 변경되지 않는 경우는 49% 정도 제어신호의 수가 감소함을 알 수 있었다.
The democracy can not be developed by the policy or laws only, but it has been being developed the participation and critism of the people in community level. The NGOs of 21 Century that are based on community people are acting not only with the community but also with globalization, together with marketing area. Therefore, NGOs will be doing great works in the future for democracy and social product in Korea. To do these works First, NGOs should set up the cooperation with those of domestic and foreign NGOs. Second, administration needs to support the NGOs to do their works efficrently. Third, community people must participate in NGOs' works actively, because the works of NGOs are for the community people themselves.
The purpose of this study is to find the Causes of conflicts, the scheme for reducing the Conflicts among groups in Rural. The detail goals for this purpose are as follows: ① The general study on community groups. ② The general study on the role of community groups. ③ The study on the causes of conflicts among groups in Rural. ④ The study on reducing the conflicts among groups in Rural. literatures and Former dissertations related to study are employed for this study. The major findings of this study are as follows: 1. The Cause of Conflicts among the groups in Rural 1) Because The Purposes of Saemaul Farming, Saemaul Women and Saemaul Youth are not obvious The Conflicts among groups are finded. 2) Because of the averagely different old among groups, The Conflicts among groups are finded. 3) Because the norms among groups are different through the averagely different old and the different sex, The Conflicts among groups are finded. 4) There are many latent leaders within groups in Rural. If the Ideas of these latent leaders are'nt accepted in the group-decision making adaptly, The conflicts among groups are finding. 5) Who the members are acting in the Group of Saemaul Farming are overlaply belonged to the three functional groups that the Groups of Saemaul Farming Contains. Therefore, Because Each member have latent conflict when the three functional groups act, The conflicts among groups are finding. 2. The sheme on reducing conflicts among groups in Rural. 1) The purposes of groups in Rural (Saemaul Farming, Saemaul Women, Sae-maul Youth) must to be obvious.
The objectives of this study is to make the conflict strategy for the functional conflict in Community Development, Because Conflicts always originate among individuals. groups and organizations related to Community Development. The research method for this study is to survey the literatures pertaining to the objectives of this study. There are considered many foreign-domestic literatures related to Communities and Community Development. Community Development Activities are divided Community Developmental planning and Community Integration. Community Development planning is to establish the systematic order for the intended change-process of Community Development, Because Community Development means the intended Change-process of Community. Community Integration is to adapt the coordinative technique related to Community Development planning that can be accomplished well. The Conflicts in Community Development Activities are originated by predisposing factors, Thus the precipitating factors enforce the conflicts originated by predisposing factors. The first conflicts in Community Development Activities are diffused and those are more strenghtened. Thus To resolve the problems within community becomes more difficult. But If Individuals, groups and organizations related to the resolution of community-problems cease the obstacle activities each other, agree to the conditions related to the obstacle problems, The conflicts can be resolved. Therefore The Conflicts through Community Development Activities are to be used from dysfunction to function. The Conflict-functional roles are variously found within Community. The Conflict strategy for this functional roles is to use disagreement against agreemental strategy. There are strategies used by the organizations, objective groups and revolutionaries related to Community Development. The processes of conflict strategy for making this conflict strategy are as follows; Step 1. Appraise the local leadership. Step 2. Analyze the community power structure. Step 3. Analyze the situation and territoriality. Step 4. Stimulate dissidents to voice grievances. Step 5. Originate the specific issues within community. Step 6. Demonstrate the value of power. From the above conflict strategies and processes, we can use functionally the conflicts which are originated though Community Development Activities, and effectively accomplish the objectives of Community Development Activities.
The youth problems are social ones anytime or anywhere rising in society. It is impossible or unreasonable to solve the youth problems monotonously or temporarily. The youth problems are also common ones our social are with them in changing society. But nowdays there are lots youth problems that are more violent than before, these show that youth problems are more serious than before. We need to research youth problems in more quality. The researchers having since researched youth problems have been researching youth problems superficially without youth participating in the research processes, and it is very difficult to find and solve the real youth problems, because youths have their culture and they can understand themselves with one another. Youths must be involved in research process about youth problems with researchers, which is called "Participatory Research". Participatory research means that researchers do to find out and solve youth problems with youth in field. This research methods should be accepted in research process about youth.