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We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the yellow-spotted long horned beetle, Psacothea hilaris (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an endangered insect species in Korea. The 15,856-bp long P. hilaris mitogenome harbors gene content typical of the animal mitogenome and a gene arrangement identical to the most common type found in insect mitogenomes. As with all other sequenced coleopteran species, the 5-bp long TAGTA motif was also detected in the intergenic space sequence located between tRNASer(UCN) and ND1 of P. hilaris. The 1,190-bp long non-coding A+T-rich region harbors an unusual series of seven identical repeat sequences of 57-bp in length and several stretches of sequences with the potential to form stem-and-loop structures. Furthermore, it contains one tRNAArg-like se-quence and one tRNALys-like sequence. Phylogenetic analysis among available coleopteran mitogenomes using the concatenated amino acid sequences of PCGs appear to support the sister group relationship of the suborder Poly-phaga to all remaining suborders, including Adephaga, Myxophaga, and Archostemata. Among the two available infraorders in Polyphaga, a monophyletic Cucujiformia was confirmed, with the placement of Cleroidea as the basal lineage for Cucujiformia. On the other hand, the infraorder Elateriformia was not identified as monophyletic, thereby indicating that Scirtoidea and Buprestoidea are the basal lineages for Cucujiformia and the remaining Elateriformia.
The molecular phylogeny of 12 species of Camponotus ants in Korea was examined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers as inputs for an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and cluster analysis to describe the relationships between species. For comparison, morphometric data (based on 10 morphological characters) were also gathered for phylogenetic analysis. Assessments of similarity between species were made, and the results of these assessments are compared for the molecular and morphological data sets. In the morphometric analysis, the following groups were identified: (i) C. atrox, C. kiusuensis, C. japonicus and C. concavus (93% similarity); (ii) C. sp. 1 (be diverging at 80% similarity); (iii) C. jejuensis, C. sp. 3, C. itoi, C. nawai and C. tokioensis (94.5% similarity); and (iv) C. nipponensis and C. quadrinotatus (94.5% similarity). Formica fusca was 73.5% similar to the 12 Camponotus species studied here. The group comprising C. nawai and C. tokioensis had the highest similarity index (97.36%), followed by the group comprising C. jejuensis and C. sp. 3 (95%), then C. atrox and C. kiusuensis (94.5%), and then C. nipponensis and C. quadrinotatus (93.5%). In the molecular analysis the following groups were identified: (i) C. atrox and C. jejuensis (30% similarity); (ii) C. concavus, C. japonicus and C. itoi (25% similarity); (iii) C. kiusuensis, C. nawai, C. sp. 3, C. nipponensis, C. quadrinotatus and C. sp. 1 (24% similarity); and (iv) C. tokioensis (be diverging at 23% similarity). The most closely related group in the molecular analysis was C. nawai and C. sp. 3 (75% similarity), followed by C. concavus and C. japonicus (50.5% similarity), then C. atrox and C. jejuensis (30%), and then C. quadrinotatus and C. sp. 1. Camponotus tokioensis was the least closely related to other species among the 12 species studied. Although C. jejuensis and C. tokioensis were found to be 93.6% similar on the basis of morphometric data, molecular data indicated only 23% similarity, the lowest similarity index between any two species considered here. Camponotus jejuensis has marked morphological similarities to C. tokioensis, but on the basis of molecular data gathered in the present study, we refute the proposal that they are synonyms or sister species.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the nurses' perception on hospice law in hospice institutions using questionnaire and to recommend bill of hospice law. Method: The data were collected from 95 nurses who have experienced in hospice care using a self-completion questionnaire. To analyze prescriptive data, content analysis was done using an analysis scheme developed by the investigators. Results: The separate hospice law suggested was types and purpose of law, certification of patient, living will and right to attorney, staff, institutions, service, and payment. The analysis scheme consisted of 6 categories and 17 subcategories. 83 significant statements were analyzed and categorized. Hospice nurses indicated that their operation, financing, manpower, institution, patient right, drug management is needed to enact for bill. Conclusions: The results of this study on hospice law contents will contribute to build the national hospice system in Korea.