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In many practical cases a fractional replication is used by an experimenter to estimate a subset of effects under assumption that the rest of effects are negligible. To get a insight in what precisely is being estimated if the assumption of negligility of the suppressed effects is not valid it is impreative that the experimenter has a complete knowledge of the aliasing structure. This paper reviews how to compute the aliasing structure and hence the generalized difinining relationship of any design in a particular class of equiinformation designs, the class being gererated by the action of the group of level permutations on a given design. It is shown that the calculations in the case of the 2t-factorial are practical problem is given to illustrate the results.
As with land crops, cultivated algae are affected by various diseases ranging from large outbreaks of a disease to chronic epiphytes, which may downgrade the value of the final product. The recent development of intensive and dense mariculture practices has enabled some new diseases to spread much faster than before. A new disease is reported almost every year, and the impact of diseases is expected to increase with environmental change, such as global warming. We observed the incidence of diseases in two Pyropia sea farms in Korea from 2011 to 2014, and estimated the economic loss caused by each disease. Serious damage is caused by the oomycete pathogens, Pythium porphyrae and Olpidiopsis spp., which decreased the productivity of the Pyropia sea farms. In Seocheon sea farms, an outbreak of Olpidiopsis spp. disease resulted in approximately US $1.6 million in loss, representing approximately 24.5% of total sales during the 2012-2013 season. The damage caused by green-spot disease was almost as serious as oomycete diseases. An outbreak of green-spot disease in the Seocheon sea farms resulted in approximately US $1.1 million in loss, representing 10.7% of total sales in the 2013-2014 season in this area. However, the causative agent of green-spot disease is still not confirmed. “Diatom felt” is regarded as a minor nuisance that does not cause serious damage in Pyropia; however, our case study showed that the economic loss caused by “diatom felt” might be as serious as that of oomycete diseases. Bacteria and cyanobacteria are indigenous members of epiphytic microbial community on Pyropia blades, but can become opportunistic pathogens under suitable environmental conditions, especially when Pyropia suffers from other diseases. A regular acid wash of the Pyropia cultivation nets is the most common treatment for all of the above mentioned diseases, and represents approximately 30% of the total cost in Pyropia sea farming. However, the acid wash is ineffective for some diseases, especially for Olpidiopsis and bacterial
The well-known conventional Kalman filter gives the optimal solution but to do so, it requires an accurate system model and exact stochastic information. However, in a number of practical situations, the system model and the stochastic information are incomplete. The Kalman filter with incomplete information may be degraded or even diverged. To solve this problem, a new adaptive fading filter using a forgetting factor has recently been proposed by Kim and co-authors. This paper analyzes the stability of the adaptive fading extended Kalman filter (AFEKF), which is a nonlinear filter form of the adaptive fading filter. The stability analysis of the AFEKF is based on the analysis result of Reif and co-authors for the EKF. From the analysis results, this paper shows the upper bounded condition of the error covariance for the filter stability and the bounded value of the estimation error.
본고는 TDX 전전자교환기 개발에 따른 시스팀 형상관리를 효율적이고 체계적으로 수행하기 위한 자동화 도구, $CMI^2S$(Interactive Information System for TDX Configuration Managements)의 개발에 관한 연구결과이다. $CMI^2S$는 menu-driven 방식을 기본으로 하는 네가지 도구 (CCT/RDT/SPRT/DSMT)들로 구성되어 있으며, 주요 개발환경중의 하나인 데이터베이스 시스팀은 VAX-l1/750 컴퓨터 시스팀의 Troll/USE Relational DBMS 이다. 그리고 $CMI^2S$의 주목적은 형상관리 활동인 형상인식, 형상통제, 형상상태 기록의 수행을 자동화하여 TDX 시스팀의 integrity를 향상시키는데 있다.
In recent years, crime has been steadily increasing, causing not only economic damage but also aggravating the social atmosphere. The CPTED(Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) guideline, which is an environmental crime prevention design technique, reduces the possibility of crime by implementing a proper defensive design plan through appropriate lighting design in the city and reduces the fear of crime. Among the various principles of CPTED, the proper use of street lamps and CCTV is considered to be an important factor in enabling natural surveillance. In this study, the authors identified and quantified the current status of the installation of street lamps and CCTV in each autonomous district of Seoul. The physical quantity of lighting and social factor quantified from light lamps and CCTV data, respectively, were expected to support the guidelines presented by CPTED. Therefore, we conducted statistical analysis based on quantified values and found that street lamps and CCTV had a statistically significant relationship with crime rate. In addition, the correlation between the safety index and the crime rate, calculated by dividing the number of street lamps and CCTVs by area, was also analyzed and an R2 value of 0.647 was confirmed.