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Temperature characteristics of supply oil in an ultra-precision hydrostatic table are largely influenced by parameter setting in an oil cooler such as the location of reference sensor and cooling temperature. In this paper, influences of the parameter setting on the temperature variation in the hydrostatic table are experimentally analyzed to suggest the guidelines for practical application. In case of using temperature of inlet oil as a reference sensor in the oil cooler, temperature rise of the supply oil is smaller and thermal settling time is faster than that of using temperature of outlet oil as a reference sensor. The experimental results also show that temperatures of table, rail and return oil can be made almost same, and thermal settling time can be decreased by setting cooling temperature in the oil cooler to be lower than atmospheric temperature.
This paper presents the motion accuracy simulation considering loads such as workpiece weight, cutting force, cogging force of a linear motor, and force caused by misalignment and runout error of a ballscrew in linear motion units. The transfer function method is basically utilized to estimate 5-DOF motion errors, together with the equilibrium equations of force and moment on the table. The transfer function method is modified in order to consider clearance changed according to the loads in the double sided hydrostatic/aerostatic bearings. Then, the analytic model for predicting the 5-DOF motion errors is proposed with the modified transfer function method. Motion errors were simulated under different loading conditions in the linear motion units using hydrostatic, aerostatic, and linear motion bearings, respectively. And the proposed analytic model was verified by comparing the estimated and measured motion errors.
The laser interferometer system such as HP5529A is one of the most powerful equipment for measurement of the straightness error in precision stages. The straightness measurement system, HP5529A is composed of a Wollaston prism and a reflector. In this system, the straightness error is defined as relative lateral motion change between the prism and the reflector and computed from optical path difference of two polarized laser beams between these optics. However, rotating motion of the prism or the reflector used as a moving optic causes unwanted straightness error. In this paper, a compensation method is proposed for removing the unwanted straightness error generated by rotating the moving optic and an experiment is carried out for theoretical verification. The result shows that the unwanted straightness error becomes very large when the reflector is used as the moving optic and the distance between the reflector and the prism is far. Therefore, the prism must be generally used as the moving optic instead of the reflector so as to reduce the measurement error. Nevertheless, the measurement error must be compensated because it's not a negligible error if a rotating angle of the prism is large. In case the reflector must be used as the moving optic, which is unavoidable when the squareness error is measured between two axes, this compensation method can be applied and produces a better result.
Air bearings are widely used in precision stages because of low friction and high motion accuracy, however, they suffer from low stiffness in comparison with rolling bearings or hydrostatic bearings. So, several preloading methods using weight, magnet and vacuum force, and opposing pads have been used to increase the stiffness of the air bearings. In this paper, pressure distributions of the vacuum preloaded porous air bearings are calculated using the proposed method. And then, the load capacity and stiffness are analyzed. For the vacuum preloaded air bearings, the stiffness is increased owing to reduced bearing clearance by vacuum force. The simulation results indicate that variation of vacuum pressure with clearance in the vacuum pocket gives rise to low stiffness, so the vacuum pocket should be designed for pressure to be constantly maintained regardless of the bearing clearance by means of large effective pumping speed.
This paper describes a theoretical analysis and experimental verification on the performances of a vacuum-compatible air bearing, which is designed with a cascaded exhaust scheme to minimize the air leakage in a vacuum environment. The design of the vacuum-compatible air bearing equipped with the differential exhaust system requires great care because several design parameters, such as the number of exhaust stages, diameter of exhaust tube, pumping speed of a vacuum pump, and bearing clearance greatly influence the air leakage and thus degree of vacuum. In this study, a performance analysis method was proposed to estimate the performances of the air bearing, such as load capacity, stiffness, and air leakage. Results indicate that the load capacity and stiffness of the air bearing was improved as its boundary pressure, which was determined by the 1<SUP>st</SUP> exhaust method, was lowered, and the dominant factors on the chamber's degree of vacuum were the number of exhaust stages, exhaust tube diameter and bearing clearance. A vacuum chamber and air bearing stage using porous pad were fabricated to verify the theoretical analysis. The results demonstrate that chamber pressure up to an order of 10<SUP>-3</SUP> Pa was achieved with the air bearing stage operating inside the chamber, and this analysis method was valid by comparing predicted values with experimental data, for the mass flow rates from the porous pad, and pressures at each exhaust port and chamber, respectively.
This paper presents the optimal design of an exhaust system of a vacuum-compatible air bearing using a genetic algorithm. To use the air bearings in vacuum conditions, the differential exhaust method is adopted to minimize the air leakage, which prevents air from leaking into a vacuum chamber by recovering air through several successive seal stages in advance. Therefore, the design of the differential exhaust system is very important because several design parameters such as the number of seals, diameter and length of an exhaust tube, pumping speed and ultimate pressure of a vacuum pump, seal length and gap(bearing clearance) influence on the air leakage, that is, chamber's degree of vacuum. In this paper, we used a genetic algorithm to optimize the design parameters of the exhaust system of a vacuum-compatible air bearing under the several constraint conditions. The results indicate that chamber's degree of vacuum after optimization improved dramatically compared to the initial design, and that the distribution of the spatial design parameters, such as exhaust tube diameter and seal length, was well achieved, and that technical limit of the pumping speed was well determined.
A pressure rise is generated while air bearing stages are moving in high vacuum environment. This study analyzed this pressure rise phenomenon theoretically and verified it experimentally using two different kinds of stages - linear and rotary air bearing stages. Results indicate that the pressure rise was caused by additional leakage resulting from stage velocity, along with adsorption and outgassing of gas molecules from the guide rail surface. Though tilting of the stage due to acceleration and deceleration reached several micrometers, it had a negligible effect on pressure rise because the tilting time was very short. Therefore, a rotary air bearing stage showed much less pressure rise than a linear stage because the rotary stage theoretically has nothing to do with the above causes. Additional leakage caused by stage velocity was inevitable if the stage had movements, but pressure rise caused by adsorption and outgassing could be suppressed by improving the surface quality to reduce real surface area, and by coating the guide rail surface with titanium nitride (TiN) which has less adhesion probability of gas molecules. The results also indicate that the pressure rise increased when the air bearing stage operated under high vacuum conditions.
Recently, mastering processes for high density optical disc such as Blu-ray disc rely on electron beams, which are operable in only vacuum. In the mastering process, one of the most important tasks is to design precision stages for providing precise positioning of the works with respect to the source in a high vacuum environment. In this paper, we have developed a precision rotation table usable in the electron beam mastering. The rotation table adopted air bearings for a high positioning repeatability and velocity stability. The air leakage from the air bearings has been minimized by employing the differential exhaust scheme using three steps of air drain. The design parameters such as diameters of exhaust lines, seal lengths, and pumping speeds were decided according to the optimization method using genetic algorithm. The performance on the vacuum level of the rotation table was evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that a vacuum level of 10?⁴ ㎩ is achieved with operation of air bearings in a vacuum chamber, which is sufficient for the electron beam mastering.
This paper introduces a torque load supplier to evaluate control errors of a virtual 2-axis feeding unit. The torque load supplier makes a various torque loads which substitute for real physical loads such as a friction force, cutting force and inertia force in a machine tools. Therefore unwanted disturbances can be eliminated in the evaluation. Contour error in a virtual 2-axis feeding unit is evaluated using proposed torque suppliers.