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김경식,권병철,이종균,최재영,설준희,이승규,박영환,조범구,Kim, Kyeong Sik,Kweon, Byeong Chul,Lee, Jong Kyun,Choi, Jae Young,Sul, Jun Hee,Lee, Sung Kyu,Park, Young Whan,Cho, Bum Koo 대한소아청소년과학회 2003 Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics (CEP) Vol.46 No.3
목 적 : 심실중격결손이 없는 폐동맥 폐쇄의 치료에 있어 수술적 우심실 유출로 재건술 대신 심도자를 이용한 경피적 폐동맥 판막 절개술이 도입되었고 고식적으로 폰탄 술식을 단계적으로 시행함에 있어서도 다양한 형태의 비수술적 치료 방법이 시행되고 있어 수술-비수술적 협동 치료의 중요성이 강조되고 있는 가운데 실제 심실중격결손이 없는 폐동맥 폐쇄의 치료에 있어 수술-비수술적 협동 치료가 행해지는 실례를 확인하고 각 치료 방법들 사이의 치료 성적과 해부학적 혈역학적 지표를 비교하기 위하여 본 연구를 시행하였다. 방 법 : 1995년 1월부터 2000년 12월까지 본원에서 심실중격 결손이 없는 폐동맥 폐쇄로 치료받은 33명의 환아(경피적 폐동맥 판막 절개술 10례, 수술적 우심실 유출로 재건술 12례, 폰탄형 술식 11례, 남 : 녀=17 : 16)를 대상으로 환자 기록지를 후향적으로 검토하였다. 결 과 : 경피적 폐동맥 판막 성형술을 시행 받은 10명의 환아 중 외래추적 과정에서 지속되는 폐동맥판막 협착으로 3례에서 풍선을 이용한 폐동맥판막 성형술을 필요로 하였으며 1례에서는 풍선을 이용한 폐동맥 판막 성형술에도 불구하고 삼첨판륜 성형술로 호전 되었다. 체폐 단락술이나 심도자 중재술 없이 일차적으로 우심실 유출로 재건술을 시행 받은 7례 중 2례에서 시술 후 추가적인 심도자 중재술을 필요로 하였으며 2례 에서 수술적 우심실 유출로 재건술 이전에 심도자 중재술을 시행 받았다. 폰탄 타입 수술을 시행한 11례 중 모두 5례에서 총 폐정맥-폐동맥 문합술 전에 측부순환에 대한 코일 색전술을 시행 받았고 모두 3례에서 총 폐정맥-폐동맥 문합술 후에 심도자 중재술을 필요로 하였다. 결 론 : 심실중격결손이 없는 폐동맥 폐쇄 환아의 치료에 있어 수술적 치료와 비수술적 치료가 병행되고 있으며 수술-비수술적 협동치료가 필수적으로 요구된다. Purpose : The actual clinical examples of co-appliance of catheter intervention with surgical procedures in the treatment of pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum(PA/IVS) which we have experienced in our institution are here shown, and the anatomical and hemodynamical profiles between each method is compared. Methods : Medical records of 33 patients with PA/IVS who underwent various treatment from January, 1995 to December, 2000 were reviewed for a retrograde study. Results : In three out of 10 patients who underwent percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvotomy (PPV), residual pulmonary stenosis were observed in their out patient department(OPD) follow-ups, eventually necessitatig balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty(BPV). One out of three patients exhibited deterioration of tricuspid regurgitation after BPV, requiring surgical tricuspid annuloplasty(TAP). Two out of the seven patients who received primarily surgical right ventricle outlet tract(RVOT) repair without any systemic-pulmonary shunt or intervention needed additional intervention employing cardiac catheterization after operation. Two patients received interventional catheterization before surgical RVOT repair. In five out of 11 cases of Fontan type operation, coil embolization of collateral circulation was done before total cavo-pulmonary connection(TCPC), and in three cases, interventional catheterization was needed after TCPC. Conclusion : Both medical and surgical treatment modalities are widely used in management of PA/IVS patients, and recent results prove that medico-surgical cooperative treatment is essential.
The aim of the study is to explore feasibility of developing an integrated model of an equity theory and the motivation. In specific, the study exams dynamics of two theories by applying feedback thinking. Since the purpose of the paper is to explore the feasibility of integrating two models, Adams` equity theory and Porter-Lawler`s motivation model, brief reviews on theoretical background of two models were provided. Then the paper interprets two theories` main concepts by drawing causal loop diagram. The study successfully draws a causal loop diagram in which Adams` equity theory and Porter-Lawler` motivation model melted. In addition, the paper provides the discussion on the shortage of the study along some suggestions of further study.
This study investigated organizational citizenship behavior in three folds. First of all, the study reviewed the debate on the concept of organizational citizenship behavior. The review began with Organ`s first definition on the subject followed by Graham`s criticism and Organ`s modified definition of organizational citizenship behavior. Secondly, the paper introduced subordinate concepts of which organizational citizenship behavior consisted and described elements of various subordinate concepts. Thirdly, it introduced the concept of change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior which came up with criticism on voluntary-compliance directed behavior of organizational citizenship. Finally the study drove a conclusion that the future research should be attempted with a balanced view between voluntary-compliance directed behavior of organizational citizenship and change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior.
The main focus of this paper is to look into the literature translation works and to investigate how faithfulness and readability in translating Thomas Hardy`s Tess of the D`urberυilles are fulfilled. Faithfulness and readability in literature translation are the two main issues by which we evaluate a translated work. This paper is to reconsider the notion of faithfulness in literary translation, which has been, along with the notion of readability, the major standard of evaluating the quality of translated texts. There has been heated debate between literal translation and free translation with regard to fidelity to the source text, Much of western translation theory from Cicero to the twentieth century century centered on the recurring debates as to whether translations should be faithful or readable. As for the subject of analysis we chose seven Korean translations of Thomas Hardy`s Tess of the D`urberυilles, These translated texts are examined for their treatment of faithfulness and readability for the target readers. This paper also analyzed the cases of explanation by a translator`s note, parenthesis within the text and explanation by footnote for faithfulness of meaning and readability for the target readers in literary translation. With these translation strategies, translators add relevant information in the translated texts to enhance delivery of correct information for the target readers.
20C까지 단순히 밝혀주고, 점멸만 하는 조명형태가 21C부터는 밝기의 조정, 칼라의 조정이 병행된 감성조명의 시대로 도래하여, 주거생활 조명, 상업용 조명, 문화공간의 조명 등에 본격적으로 도입되기 시작했다. 특히, LED옹용조명은 자동차 분야 및 PV분야 등 다양하게 활용되고 있으며, 연 4조원의 세계시장과 2,000억원의 국내시장으로 점유되고 있으며, 연평균 45% 성장(1995~2004)으로, 성능은 향상되고, 가격은 년 10~15%로 인하되어 “미디어파사드”로 그 옹용이 눈부시게 가속화 되는 실정이다. 조명기술의 눈부신 발전과 조명산업의 발전이 어우러진 가운데 초명 산업 현장에는 조명전문가의 소요가 급속히 발생되고 있는 반면에 실무형 조명전문가를 양성하는 교육기관과 프로그램이 턱없이 부족하여, 수요에 비하여 조명전문가 양성은 요원한 실정이다. 조명교육시스템을 구축하고, 실무형 조명전문가를 양성하고 있는 경북전문대학의 조명전문가 양성교육시스템을 창고로 하여, 보다 효율적인 단계별 중견조명 전문가의 양성에 대해 연구하여, 방향을 제시하고자 한다.
Five men antagonizing Dracula and Vampires in Bram Stoker’s Dracula represent and defend sexual morality of Victorian Middle Class. At first Dracula and three Vampires obviously violate gender boundaries but the novel shows us that five brave men and their antagonized Vampires have much more similarities obscuring their differences. The novel makes the readers realize that the monstrosity can be applied to the five brave men as well as Dracula and Vampires according to the standard of the Victorian orthodox morality. Bram Stoker’s Dracula tries to erase the otherness itself constructed from the social and cultural hierarchy. The different notions of sexuality between Victorian social classes disclose the relationships between the ruler and the ruled, dominance and submission, and eventually the social mechanism of constructing otherness and monstrosity.
Elizabeth Gaskell`s Mary Barton has attracted many critics` attention because of its industrial theme, but they claim that the novel has disappointed them with the unrealistic and bourgeois resolution of the class conflict. Some extreme Feminist criticisms try to stress on John Barton`s oppression and Mary`s anger at her father, which is not to the point of the theme and structure of the novel. The limited interpretations of the viewpoints cannot appreciate the full meaning of the novel, but gender criticism can open a new meaning of the novel with the pattern of inversion and reversion of gender roles. The pattern of inversion and reversion of gender roles is related not only to female and male characters in the novel but also to the writer and her narration. Gaskell herself upsets her gender role by writing the novel and speaking out her opinion about class struggle. But she tries to return to the proper place in her gender role by the humble confession of her ignorance. Mary in the novel also overthrows her gender role when she goes alone to Liverpool trying to find a witness to save Jem and exposes herself and her love in front of the public in Jem`s trial. But she recedes into feminine shame and helplessness again. This duality of the movements in the novel is that of feminine desire as shown in the mermaid story narrated by Will. The male characters also follow the pattern. Not only John Barton and Mr. Wilson but also Job Legh show the deep "mothering" instinct in the first half of the novel. They invert their male gender role and follow the female ethic of saving and nurturing life. John Barton in the second half of the novel turns into a murderer, which is the symbolic act of avenging morality of the male public sphere. So he completed the pattern of inversion and reversion of the gender role. On the other hand, Mr. Carson whose son is killed by John Barton desires to kill the killer and take his revenge on the murderer. But in the conclusion of the novel he inverts his gender role and like Madonna in Michelangelo`s Pieta, he embraces Barton and forgives him. Inverting gender roles in the novel represents the desire of saving and nurturing life and eventually the novel implies that it is the crucial key to solving the contemporary social problems.