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李适의 난과 『호남모의록』金景淑 이 논문은 영조대 간행된 『호남모의록』을 중심으로 이괄의 난에 대응 한 호남 사림의 募義活動과 그 특성을 검토한 글이다. 이괄의 난이라는 국가적 위기 상황에서 왕대비와 국왕이 직접 나서서 전국의 민인들에게 의병 봉기를 독려하였고, 이에 부응하여 전국적으로 義兵 및 義穀 모금 활동이 전개되었다. 호남 지역에서는 영광에서 모의 활동이 시작되어 도내 전체로 확대되 었다. 모의 활동은 영광의 都廳을 중심으로 도내 고을을 都會官 - 屬邑 체제로 편제하고 각 고을 간에는 향교를 매개로 소통하는 지역 연결망을 갖추어 체계적으로 추진되었다. 모곡 대상자는 모든 민인을 대상으로 하 였고, 모곡량은 신분에 따라 차등있게 배정하였다. 그 결과 도내에서 모금 한 의곡량이 3천여석에 달하였다. 모곡 활동은 서인계 인물들이 주도하였 고, 그 때문에 북인 계열은 모곡 대상에서 배제되었다. 이들은 이괄의 난 뿐만 아니라 그 전후에 있었던 국가적 위기 상황에서도 의병을 일으키는 등 적극적으로 활동한 사실을 확인할 수 있다. 모의활동의 전말을 기록한 『호남모의록』은 향촌사회에서 붕당간의 대 립이 첨예했던 1760년(영조 36)에 모의 활동 주도층의 후손들을 중심으로 간행되었다. 이는 『호남모의록』의 간행 배경과 관련하여 주목되는 현상이 다. 17세기 이후 호남 사림의 학문적 성향은 철학적인 이기심성론보다는 의리명분론에 바탕하는 節義와 忠烈을 강조하는 방향으로 전개되고 있었 다. 『호남모의록』은 충절을 강조하는 호남 사림계의 성향 속에서 형상화 된 산물인 동시에 호남 사림의 충절 전통을 확립하고 더욱 강화시키는 역 할을 하였다. 그 과정에서 서인 노론 계열이 충절의 전통을 확립시키는 데 주도적인 역할을 하였던 것으로 파악된다. Yi Gwal/李适’s Insurrection and the 『Ho’nam Mo’eui-rok/湖南募義錄』 Kim, Kyeong Sook Examined in this article is a publication named 『Ho’nam Mo’eui-rok(“The Record of ‘Righteous Volunteers Recruitment’ within the Ho’nam Region”)』, which was compiled and published during the reign of King Yeongjo. The reason for such examination is to clarify the role played by the Ho’nam Sa’rim figures, and determine their actions of recruiting ‘righteous volunteers(righteous militia members)’ as their efforts to respond to the insurrection of Yi Gwal. When the insurrection broke out, the king had to leave the capital, and in order to overcome the dynastic crisis, recruitments of ‘righteous soldiers’ and ‘righteous resources(“Eui’gok,” 義穀)’ continued throughout the country. This act of “Mo’eui(募義)” began in the Yeong’gwang area, and spreaded to the entire province. The people who led the recruiting were the “Westerners” party members who supported King Injo’s takeover of the government and also the New regime. They categorized the counties inside the province into ‘Large ones(“Dae’eub,” 大邑)’ and ‘Sub-units(“Sog’eub,” 屬邑),’ and then launched a systematic campaign of raising money. The entire sum of grain collected inside the province mounted to 3 thousand Seok units. In 1760(36th year of King Yeongjo’s reign), the descendants of the leaders of the righteous militias also led the task of compiling and publishing 『Ho’nam Mo’eui-rok』, which was a record of recruiting ‘righteous volunteers’ from the Ho’nam region. Since the 17th century, the academic trend of the Sa’rim figures in the Ho’nam region displayed a tendency of emphasizing the importance of ‘Honor(節義)’ and ‘Loyalty(忠烈),’ based upon the discourse of loyalty and righteousness, instead of endeavoring in philosophical studies of ‘Yi’ and ‘Gi’ and the Human nature(理氣心性). 『Ho’nam Mo’eui-rok』 was a result of the trends inside the Ho’nam region’s Sa’rim society, and reinforced the tradition of loyalty for the Ho’nam Sa’rim figures. And it was the Westerners(the No’ron faction to be exact) who led that trend and promoted it.
This essay aims at interpreting Joyce’s Finnegans Wake as a postcolonial echo. In his earlier works, Joyce expresses his anxiety over English, the colonizer’s language, as the tool of his art. The English Joyce uses as the colonized cannot, so it is an imperfect imitation of the original English the British use as the colonizer. However, in Finnegans Wake, Joyce does not represent any self-consciousness about English. What Joyce does in Finnegans Wake is not imitation but echo. Echo does not seek for perfection because it is amputation and fragmentation in itself. The language of Finnegans Wake is not English but the echo of English, which is amputated, fragmented, and hybridized. It does not permit any space for cultural hegemony or power of the British Empire. It does not allow any space for cultural purity, either. This essay aims at analyzing how Joyce’s language experiment deconstructs the authority of English and reverberates recalcitrant echo. The essential concept of this essay comes from Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s thesis “Echo” (1993). According to Spivak, the nymph of the mountain, Echo, provides a crucial moment of reinterpreting the myth of Narcissus. If Narcissus symbolizes the western epistemology centered on the knowledge of the self, Echo represents the subaltern who exists at the margin of such epistemology. However, interestingly enough, Spivak re-interprets Echo’s echoes as a deconstructing reverberation to subvert Narcissus’s speech. If we apply this inspiration to Finnegans Wake, we can re-read Joyce’s language experimentation not as a passive repetition or imitation of the colonizer’s language, but as a recalcitrant echo destabilizing the very base of epistemology upon which English as the language hinges. To sum up, this essay tries to reinterpret Finnegans Wake and its political/historical meanings from the perspective of postcolonialism, by analyzing its language experiments. This reinterpretation of Finnegans Wake as a recalcitrant echo in the context of postcolonialism will open the door to reading the text as an alternative historiography on a postcolonial Ireland.
This research is to analyse the way of establishment urban cultural spaces just like cultural place based on the problems that appear in the process of establishing urban cultural spaces by facing with a transition phase. For this purpose, based on theory of "production of space" of Henri Lefebvre who is a sociologist in France, the space Cheongju was selected as research object, focused on Cultural and Creative City which is the representative of urban cultural space. In terms of social and cultural theory, it was suggested the existing outdated urban spaces should be changed to urban cultural spaces as the time of cities and cultures. The theory has been made for "Production of Space Theory" of Lefebvre as theoretical basis for transition toward urban cultural spaces, and for "Space Practice Theory" of David Harvey as an expansion of "Space Production". The success cases of both domestic and oversea were selected to examine and analyse based on historical, cultural space and creativity space. The domestic case of Hwaseong Fortress means the successful urban reproduction through the representation of historical spaces on the Hwaseong Fortress. Ecomuseum which reflects the life and culture of Alsace people is a cultural community movement. Therefore ecomuseum shows the regional culture. Classification and analysis work upon the types of cultural urban reproduction was carried out, on the basis of the actual cases of the cities. Also implications and applicability of the urban reproduction strategy utilizing culture and art were drawn. An old Cigarette Factory in Cheongju as an urban reprouction was selected as a successful case region. And this research aimed to see which urban reproduction strategy using culture is capable of revitalizing a city, and also what kinds of values it involves potentially. This research was based on the problems that exist in the historical and cultural urban spaces of many cities in Korea as current transition phase. In the basis of organic and creative city, this research has investigated the successful direction to produce the urban culture spaces based on "Production of Space Theory" and "Space Practice Theory" In addition, it is expected that this research would provide a practical case, suggesting an effective way to successful accomplish the urban production leading project in the old Cigarette Factory in Cheongju.