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This study is concerned with the critical evaluation of predicative capability of a k-ε turbulence model using the Renormalization Group(RNG) theory. The present numerical model for solution of the Navier-Stokes System is based on the modified PISO algorithms. Computations have been performed with the RNG-based k-ε model for the two-dimensional flow over a backward-facing step, a confined coaxial jet, and a swirling flow in a swirl combustor. Numerical results are compared with experimental data in terms of mean flow velocities, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent stresses. Numerical results clearly indicate that the RNG-based k-e turbulence model shows a significant improvement over a standard k-ε model in predicting the turbulent flows with flow separation and swirl.<br/>
An extensive investigation was conducted to assess the influence of steel sheet surface finish on pained surface appearance. Several kinds of textured steel sheet were painted simultaneously using advanced solvent-based luxury vehicle paint systems. Especially, the current emphasis on control of surface roughness of cold rolled steel sheet has been prompted by the automotive industry's concern with the as-painted appearance of sheet products, because the influence of such characteristics on paintability, formability and painted surface appearance is important in defining steel surface requirements for automotive industries. The results are discussed in detail with respect to 1) the influence of different steel surface textures on paint appearance, 2) the evolution of surface topography during painting, and 3) the implication of this work. 4) Painted sheet appearance is strongly affected by surface roughness and peak count of base-metal and influenced by the topographical properties of substrate, paint thickness and zinc coating variables. 5) The painted appearance of shot blast textured(SBT) and electro-discharge textured(EDT) automotive cold rolled steel sheets was determined and related to surface roughness parameters, zinc coating method, and paint thickness.
Numerical study of a confined, swirling, isothermal and spray-com busting flows has been presented. The pressure-velocity coupling in the Eulerian gas-phase equation is handled by the improved PISO algorithm. the droplet dispersion by turbulence is introduced by a Stochastic Separated Flow(SSF) model. The k-? turbulence model and the eddy dissipation model are employed to account for turbulence-combustion interaction. The detailed comparison with experimental data has been made for the isothermal jet swirling flows and the nearly mono disperse spray-combusting flow in the swirl combustor.<br/>