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Experiments were carried out to evaluate weed control performance of Cyclosulfamuron and Pyribenzoxim by foliar application, especially for direct seeded rice. In addition, the combinations of the herbicides and water managements were tested for the improvement of the herbicidal activity. Herbicidal effect of Cyclosulfamuron was excellent for B. tripartita, B, frondosa, fair or fairly good for A. indica, and C. cerotinus, and good for E. crus-galli, L. prostrata, S. juncoides, and A. keisak. Herbicidal effect of Pyribenzoxim was excellent for B. tripartita, B. fonndosa, A. keisak, and A. indica, fairly good for E. crus-galli, L. prostrata and poor for s. juncoides, and C. cerotinus. The foliar treatment of two herbicides were the most effective when irrigated 3 days after treatments. The herbicidal effects became poor when saturated condition was maintained, especially E. crus-galli and S. jucoides. Both Cyclosulfamuron and Pyribenzoxim were very effective for the control of B. tripartita and frondosa even under very low concentrations. But the higher rates of Pyribenzoxim are to be used for the better control of E. crus-galli and L. prostrata. Combination treatments of the two herbicides could extended the weed control spectrum. In addition the combination treatments had some positive effects in controlling L. prostrata, S. juncoides and A. keisak
The gastrointestinal tract is one of the major sites for complications after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and gastrointestinal complications are the principle cause of morbidity and death. The major gastrointestinal complications after transplantation include mucositis, typhlitis, infectious enterocolitis by virus, bacteria or fungus, pseudomembranous colitis, gastric ulcer, graft- versus-host disease, pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis, thrombotic microangiopathy and post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease. Symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal complications following transplantation are often non-specific and present with varying severity. Moreover, the suppressed immune state often prohibits invasive studies including endoscopy and blurs the serologic and hematologic results. Therefore, it is hard to reach accurate diagnoses even after thorough investigations. Almost all immunosuppressive drugs can lead to gastrointestinal complications and we need proper strategies to minimize their side effects. On the one hand, we can expect better organ and patient survival through the judicious use of a broad range of immunosuppressive drugs; on the other hand, we should try to not ruin survival through proper precautions and early treatment of gastrointestinal complications following successful transplantation. 장기 이식이나 조혈모세포 이식 후 위장관 합병증은 비교적 흔히 발병하며 삶의 질을 감소시키고, 치명적인 경우가 있어 사망률을 증가시킨다. 조혈모세포 이식 후 면역이 저하되는 과정은 생착 전 단계, 조기 생착 단계, 후기 생착 단계로 분류할 수 있으며 각 단계 별로 빈번히 발생하는 합병증이 있다. 장기 이식 후 흔히 발생하는 위장관 합병증으로는 점막염, 구토, 복통 등이 있고, 또한 설사, 혈변, 맹장염 등이 관찰된다. 이중 중요한 합병증으로는 이식편대숙주병이 가장 많고, 거대세포 바이러스를 비롯한 바이러스 감염, C. difficile에 의한 위막성결장염이 등이 나타날 수 있다. 이외에도 위장관 궤양성 질환, 낭성장기종, 혈전미세혈관병증, 이식후림프세포증식질환 등이 발생할 수 있다. 장기 이식 후 발생하는 위장관 합병증의 증상은 비 특이적이어서 진단이 어려우며 또한 면역 기능이 억제된 상태여서 내시경 등의 적극적인 검사를 하기도 어렵다. 또한 항암제나 항생제 뿐만 아니라 대부분의 면역억제제가 위장관 합병증을 일으키므로 감별 진단을 하여야 한다. 이식 후 정확한 조기 진단 및 조기 치료가 이환율 및 사망률을 낮출 수 있으므로 환자의 증상을 중심으로 내시경 검사와 조직 검사, 혈청학적인 검사, 방사선 검사 등의 적극적인 검사를 이용하여 조기에 진단하는 것이 이식 후 위장관 합병증을 치료 하는 데에 매우 중요하다.
Purpose Dose-dense chemotherapy (DD-CT) is a preferred (neo)adjuvant regimen in early breast cancer (BC). Although the results of reported randomized trials are conflicting, a recent metaanalysis showed improved overall and disease-free survival with DD-CT compared to conventional schedules. However, no DD-CT safety data for Korean BC patients are available. This phase II study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of pegteograstim in Korean BC patients receiving DD-CT. Materials and Methods Patients with operable (stage I-III), histologically confirmed BC received four cycles of intravenous doxorubicin (60 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m2) on day 1 every 2 weeks as neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. Pegteograstim (6.0 mg) was administered subcutaneously on day 2 of each cycle. The primary endpoint was the incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN). The secondary endpoints were safety and tolerability. Results Of 63 patients, one (1.6%) developed FN during all cycles of DD-CT. Dose delay was observed in four patients (6.3%) and dose reduction in two (3.2%) during DD-CT. Frequent adverse events (AEs) were nausea, alopecia, generalized muscle weakness, myalgia, mucositis, anorexia, dyspepsia, and diarrhea; most AEs were related to chemotherapy. Grade 3-4 AEs were reported in five of 63 patients (7.9%), and all grade 3 and 4 AEs were related to chemotherapy. Adverse drug reactions possibly linked to pegteograstim were abdominal pain, bone pain, myalgia, generalized muscle weakness, and headache in five of 63 patients (7.9%). Conclusion Dose-dense AC (doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy with pegteograstim support is a tolerable and safe regimen in Korean early BC patients.
Ochrobactrum anthropi is an oxidase-producing, non-lactose-fermenting, gram-negative bacillus that is frequently isolated from the environment including sinks, baths, soil, and hospital water sources. Recently O. anthropi have been reported as an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, particularly in those with indwelling venous catheters. Most O. anthropi were highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics except carbapenem. We report a case of O. anthropi bacteremia with an unusual pattern of antibiotic resistance compared to previous reports. A 47-year-old woman undergoing camptobell/cisplatin chemotherapy via indwelling venous catheter (chemoport) for stage IV ovarian cancer, had septicemia due to O. anthropi of unknown origin. The isolates were resistant to all β-lactams and meropenem and susceptible to aminoglycoside, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. She recovered from sepsis with combination treatment with imipenem and ciprofloxacin for 3 weeks.
As part of various efforts to improve safety since the Fukushima disaster, a level 3 PSAwas enacted as a notice in Korea. For the domestic level 3 PSA, it is essential to formulate theKorean-specific health effect assessment model typically aimed at deriving lifetime risk resultingfrom radiation exposure using cancer incidence model for each cancer site. Of the cancer sites to beevaluated, more attention is required for the thyroid cancer since there is an obvious relationshipbetween the cancer risk and exposure dose. In this study, for the purpose of developing the Koreanmodel for assessing thyroid cancer risk, the following models that were widely used around theworld have been reviewed as the reference; (1) BEIR VII, (2) EPA 2011, (3) Veiga et al. (2016), and (4)Preston et al. (2007). In this review process, the following points were considered: (1) considerationof relationship between time since exposure and thyroid cancer risk, (2) similarity of ethniccharacteristics with the Koreans, and (3) exclusion of medical exposure data. From this point ofview, the Preston et al. (2007) was chosen as the most appropriate reference model. Unlike othermodels, to include both ERR and EAR models in assessing the cancer risk, the weighting factorfor risk transfer must be considered. In this study, it is suggested to use the 0.5 of weighting factorfor each model with reference to the WHO model. However, the cancer risk estimates using thisfactor should be supplemented by the uncertainty analysis. In future, the thyroid cancer risk modelproposed in this study is supposed to be installed as part of the health effect assessment module inthe Korean level 3 PSA code system, and be utilized to estimate the radiation-induced thyroid cancerrisk reflecting ethnic and regional characteristics of the Korean population.
We compared the serum protein electrophoresis patterns in the sera which increased AST, AST, ALT together with the sera increased creatinine and BUN together. The results showed that the albumin fraction is decreased and γ-globulin fraction is increased in sera with high level of AST, ALT, and ALP together. The sera with high concentration of creatinine and BUN together showed increasing α2-globulin fraction, decreasing β-globulin fraction and increasing γ-globulin fraction. The sera with high level of AST, ALT, ALP, creatinine and BUN showed decreasing albumin fraction, increasing α2-globulin fraction, and increasing γ-globulin fraction. These results show that it so important to analyze the concentration of biochemical components in serum and serum protein electrophoresis for diagnosis of liver or kidney disease.
Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) is a rare form of primary liver cancer composed of cells with histopathologic features of both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Because of its low incidence, the information on clinical outcomes of cHCC-CC is very limited and there are no published reports describing non-surgical treatment options for cHCC-CC. We report a case of cHCC-CC exhibiting a favorable response to systemic chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cisplatin. A 62-year-old man who recurred after a right lobectomy for cHCC-CC received sorafenib for palliative systemic therapy, but follow up imaging studies showed disease progression. He received 2nd line chemotherapy with doxorubicin at 60 mg/m2 together with cisplatin at 70 mg/m2. After 2 cycles of chemotherapy, a computed tomography scan of the chest showed markedly decreased size and number of the multiple lung metastases. After completing 8 cycles of 2nd line therapy, we changed the regimen to a fluorouracil (5-FU) mono therapy because of the toxicities associated with doxorubicin and cisplatin. To date, the patient has completed his 15th cycle of 5-FU mono therapy with the disease status remaining stable during 18 months of follow-up.
Duodenal lipomas are relatively uncommon and asymptomatic unless they are large. Tumors greater than 4 cm in diameter can cause obstructive symptoms as a result of intussusception necessitating a surgical resection. However, acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is an extremely rare complication. Duodenal lipomas are most often submucosal but they can also be subserosal. Their shape can vary, and they can be either sessile or pedunculated. The overlying mucosa is usually normal but it may be ulcerated. Those that cause symptoms require treatment. Endoscopic snare polypectomy has been used to treat clinically symptomatic lipomas. A detachable snare may reduce the risk of complications after a polypectomy, including bleeding and perforation. We report a case of duodenal lipoma accompanied by massive upper GI bleeding that was treated by an endoscopic polypectomy using a detachable snare. (Korean J Gastrointest Endosc 2006;33:100-104) 십이지장 지방종은 대개 증상이 없지만 크기가 4 cm 이상으로 커지면 임상적으로 상복부 통증이나 장폐색의 증상 혹은 빈혈이 나타나지만 대량의 상부 위장관 출혈은 매우 드문 것으로 알려져 있다. 십이지장 지방종은 보통은 점막하에 위치하나 장막하에서도 발견이 되며 모양은 무경성에서 아유경성, 유경성 형태로 다양하다. 지방종을 덮고 있는 점막은 비교적 정상이고 어떤 경우에서 궤양을 형성할 수 있으며, 출혈이나 장폐색 등의 증상을 유발시킨 지방종은 수술적인 제거가 원칙이나 최근에는 내시경을 이용한 용종 절제술이나 점막 절제술을 시행하고 있다. 박리성 올가미는 용종 절제술 후에 발생하는 출혈이나 천공을 감소시킬 목적으로 고안되었고, 이번 증례에서처럼 출혈을 일으킨 지방종의 크기가 2 cm 이상이고 유경성인 경우에 박리성 올가미를 이용하여 보다 안전하고 효과적으로 내시경적인 제거를 하였기에 문헌 고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다.
The CAD-CAM technique is a rapidly developing field in the dental field and is applied to various fields of prosthetic treatment. Among them, the manufacturing of dentures using the milling technique classified as subtractive manufacturing is one of the commercialized digital full denture manufacturing methods. At the same time, it is possible to more efficiently manufacture a metal framework for implant overdenture by selective laser sintering or melting technique classified as an additive manufacturing method. The purpose of this article is to describe the fabrication of CAD-CAM maxillary complete denture and mandibular implant overdenture as well as its features. 컴퓨터 지원 설계 및 제조 기법(CAD-CAM)은 치과 영역에서 급속도로 발전해온 분야로, 다양한 보철 치료 영역에 적용되고 있다. 이 중 절삭형 방식(Subtractive Manufacturing)으로 분류되는 절삭가공 기법을 이용한 의치 제작은 상용화된 디지털 총의치 제작 방식 중 하나이며, 동시에 첨가형 방식(Additive Manufacturing)으로 분류되는 레이저 소결 혹은 용융 기법을 활용하여 피개의치를 위한 금속구조물을 보다 효율적으로 제작할 수 있게 되었다. 본 증례에서는, CAD-CAM을 통해 절삭형 방식으로 제작한 상악 총의치와 3D 금속 프린팅을 이용한 금속구조물과 절삭형 방식으로 제작된 인공치를 접목한 하악 임플란트 피개의치를 제작하였다. 이를 통해 기능적, 심미적으로 적절한 임상적 결과를 얻었으므로 이를 보 고하는 바이다.