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This paper investigates the poetics of indeterminacy in some of the representative works of British and American postmodernist fiction published during the period of the late 1960s: John Fowles' The French Lieutenant's Woman (1969), Thomas Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 (1966), Donald Barthelme's Snow White (1967) and his key stories like “The Balloon” (1968), “Robert Kennedy Saved from Drowning” (1968), and “Views of My Father Weeping” (1970), and Doris Lessing's The Golden Notebook (1962). First, Fowles' The French Lieutenant's Woman displays fictionality and indeterminacy structuring the novel and thus strengthens the illusion of reality by presenting Sarah as mobility or fluidity of image, by employing authorial commentary and, above all, by giving three multiple endings. Next, Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 provokes epistemological and ontological indeterminacy by having its characters experience fictional reality both pervading and controlling their daily lives. For example, Oedipa, the heroine of the novel, happens to know the existence of Tristero, an alternative organization for communication, and continues her paranoiac attempts throughout the text to unveil its reality only to find nothing but some of its traces in the form of textual signs concerning Tristero. She cannot even affirm the existence of Tristero, which, despite her persistent inquiry about it, fades into the gray zone between existence and non-existence. Both Oedipa and the reader are bewildered in the multiple realities and their provisionality they face in their pursuit. Lastly, Barthelme's aforementioned works, which consist of a series of fragmentary little episodes, deal with the splintered world characteristic of postmodern image. In “The Balloon” the balloon is used as a device by which to inquire into the nature of indeterminate reality. The balloon ‘hanging there' eludes fixed meanings, exists inviolate and indefinable, and retains its provisional play in the realm of liberal imagination. In “Robert Kennedy Saved from Drowning,” the reader is allowed to get the information about its central character named K. but never possesses a clear picture of his identity. Like the balloon, K. proves to be illusive, undefinable, and even indeterminate. This epistemological and ontological indeterminacy is much more evident in “Views of My Father Weeping.” Not surprisingly, the story's narrator finds it difficult to relate the bits of contradictory evidence he discovers. He is not even sure that he can identify his father. Finally, the story ends with “Etc.” without arriving at any clear picture of his father's death. All these works demonstrate a characteristic postmodern way of perceiving reality, a perception which amplifies provisional, temporal and eluding aspects of reality. They also show that reality is indeterminate and comes to us only through interpretation and an endless signification process. Finally these texts all based on the poetics of indeterminacy close up the fact that our reality is textualized and always mediated through the play of language.
This paper investigates the poetics of indeterminacy in Richard Brautigan's Trout Fishing in America. Trout Fishing in America offers a series of fragmentary little chapters depicting episodes concerned with Trout Fishing in America. In the course of the text, The Trout Fishing in America becomes a person, a place, an hotel, a nib, and a book itself. In short, Trout Fishing in America can be anything Brautigan wants it to be. The transformations of Trout Fishing in America presents a paradigm of the Brautigan's art object. Brautigan uses the trout as a tool inquiring into the nature of indeterminate reality. But Trout finally resists the absolute grasp and swims free. That is, Trout Fishing in America eludes fixed meanings, exists inviolate and indefinable, and retains its provisional play in the realm of liberal imagination. Finally, Brautigan abandons the quest for Trout Fishing in America, and plays with the words. He asks us to participate in his playful verbal travels for Trout Fishing in America. For Brautigan, at least, only the quest process itself, the continuing pursuit process for the intangible through the play of liberal imagination, holds lasting value.
The propose of this paper is not to prapabe an additional interpretation of Hawdorne's The Scarlet letter but to explain its poetics by the employment of Jacques Derrida's did$quot;. Above all, Derrida's diffe´rance is a new word which incorporates two significations : $quot;to differ$quot; and $quot;to differ.$quot; is so called the space-time continuum in die context of meaning, and emphasizes a temporary appearance and the absence of transcendental signified 1n this light, words are the deferred presences of the things they mean, and their ring is guided in difference. In The Scarlet Later, the letter A's absolute reality is deferred in terms of Deirida's diffe´rance. Narrative of the text itself is developed by die traces of the letter $quot;A$quot;. At first, the $quot;A$quot; is introduced as a symbol of shame, but following Hester's transformation, the signified of the $quot;A$quot; multiply. The signifier $quot;A$quot; has many signified as traces, ranging from the negative $quot;adulteress$quot; to die mae positive $quot;art$quot;, $quot;able$quot;, $quot;adored$quot;, or, $quot;angel$quot;. The $quot;A$quot; apes an inexhaustible chain of substitutions (adulteress, anguish, angel, able, adored, autonomy, ambiguity, etc.). Thus die presence of determinate meaning is wader all the time, but exists only as a trace. These indeterminate signified of the letter $quot;A$quot; are the multiplicity of the voices that signify $quot;A$quot; for America. Finally die fiction ends with the tombstone's heraldic legend, $quot;On a FIELD, SABLE, THE LETTER A, GULES,$quot; which is actually not an ending at all. The indeterminate letter $quot;A$quot; exists only in different interpretations of the endless signification process. So a reader's to the teed is a result of Hawthorne's postmodern perception of reality, producing an inevitable indefinite interpretation. That is, the letter A, which is by design indeterminate, introduces diffe´rance as a necessary part of a reader's response.
This paper investigates the poetics of indeterminacy in the key stories of Donald Barthelme, especially in "The Balloon," "Robert Kennedy Saved from Drowning," and "Views of My Father Weeping." Indeterminacy, the uncertainty of reality, is the most distinctive episteme in postmodernism. In his stories, Barthelme reveals his postmodern perception of reality, which amplifies provisional, temporal and eluding aspects of reality, and emphasizes indeterminate reality as existing only in different interpretations of the endless signification process. "The Balloon" presents a paradigm of the Barthelmeian art object. Barthelme uses the balloon as a tool inquiring into the nature of indeterminate reality. In the text, the apparent purposelessness of the balloon forces people to take a more practical approach to the balloon's presence. In the final joke of the story, it is revealed to be narrator's balloon. in term of "a spontaneous autobiographical disclosure," having to do with sexual deprivation. Barthelme's main interest, however, seems to be simply to add another interesting interpretation to the balloon hanging there. In "Robert Kennedy Saved from Drowning," the narrator records his observation about Robert Kennedy by describing episodes in his life. Through this, information about Kennedy can be gathered, but we never gain any final answers or real insights into the subject. Like "the Balloon," Kennedy proves more various, more mysterious, even indeterminate. This epistemological and ontological indeterminacy is much more evident in "Views of My Father Weeping." Particularly in "Views of My Father Weeping", the narrator explores of boundary between real and fantasy. Not surprisingly, the story's narrator finds it difficult to relate the bits of contradictory evidence he discovers. He is not even sure that he can identify his father. Finally, the story ends with "Etc." without arriving at any clear picture of his father's death. As in "Robert Kennedy Saved from Drowning", disconnected activities move toward the central event but can never resolve it. As a result of studying the poetics of indeterminacy in short stories of Barthelme, we can better understand how he deals with the fragmented shorter forms to meditate the splintered world which is characteristic postmodern image, and that his art responds to epistemological and ontological indeterminacy. That is, the reason Barthelme has stuck to the shorter forms may not at all be a failure of imagination, but a recognition that his type of prose works only in revealing indeterminate reality.
In an effort to establish a model system to examine the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in radish tissues, changes in the glucosinolates content and associated gene expression patterns during seed germination and feeding of beet army worms (Salix exingua) to the radish leaf tissues were investigated. Radish cultivars, ‘Taebaek', ‘Baekja', and ‘Gwandong-yeorum', were chosen to represent the genotypes of high, intermediate, and low in their glucosinolate contents, respectively. The major glucosinolates found in radish were glucoraphenin in seeds and glucoraphasatin in young seedlings. A rapid loss in glucoraphenin content was observed immediately after seed germination along with a sharp increase in glucoraphasatin content. Partial sequences of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates in radish were determined using random primers manufactured based on the sequence of Brassica rapa. The RT-PCR study revealed that the expression of CYP79F1 and CYP83A1 were maintained at a high level for 14 days after germination, followed by a significant decrease, substantiating the decrease in the amount of glucosinolates. Feeding army worm on radish seedlings has resulted in an increase of the glucoraphasatin content by 1.4 folds in all three cultivars tested. Expression of CYP79F1 and CYP83A1 in the leaves were up-regulated, substantiating the increase in glucosinolates content, as compared to the control. This result suggested that there was a positive correlation between the glucosinolates contents and the expressions of CYP79F1 and CYP83A1 genes.